According to studies in 2013, the number of faculty positions in united states held by women has increased by 10 percent in 20 years; however, the number of tenured positions held by women has not increased accordingly. It is noticeable that the percentage of the women as full professors has increased 3 percent since 1993 although it is still less than 10 percent of total full professors. The male to female ratio has decreased in all types of faculty positions in 20 years in the U.S., which is a sign of improvement.

On the other hand, the number of females earned doctorate degree has been increased according to a study in 2016. In 2016 more female earned a doctorate degree in most majors other than engineering, business, and mathematics. I believe many factors affect the lower percentage of women holding faculty positions including the influence of maternity leave, the male dominance bias in the society, fewer faculty positions for women in cities where their family live and conflictions of accepting a highly competitive job with maternal duties for women. For sure there should be more causes. What is your opinion?