Bows first appeared around the 11th century. The English Longbow came much later, not until the 15th century. What surprised me the most of the Longbow, was despite its ability to be mass produced, the making of a longbow was a process that lasted multiple years. This is because the wood had to fully dry out for it to be bent and flexible. By the 13th centuries, kings would have archers practice every day which led to bows being very effective during a war. Experienced archers could hit their target up to 180 yards away. Because bows could be used from such an extreme distance (180 yards nowadays is practically close range but for the 13th century it was quite far), bows became an instrument vital to war. Bows could reach distances of 250 yards, which provided archers excellent opportunities to kill enemies without needing to worry about being attacked themselves. If the enemy were to make it past the long range distance, archers also carried swords and daggers to be used fighting in hand to hand combat. Overall, the arrival of the Longbow completely changed how wars were fought. Battles such as Crécy (1346), Poitiers (1356), and Agincourt (1415) all have written evidence telling just how decisive these bows were in determining the victorious side.
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Below is a link to a video that will show you the process of making just one If you do not want to watch the entire 15 minutes, you could skip around from these times. These are the times that most interested me. This video was very interesting and shows just how much detail goes into making only one bow.
This link has 10 interesting facts (and a bonus!) how the longbow. I found number five has very similarities with the picture the Guttman article provides. The Guttman article provides information saying that bows can fire up to 250 yards, while this article claims bows could fire up to 360 yards. While distance varies from bow to bow and article to article, one thing is clear: Longbows drastically changed the game when it came to war and combat.