Before the Bills of Enclosure were passed by Parliament, agriculture in England existed in an “openfield system.” Under this system, even the poorest individuals were invested in the land that they worked. Farmers acquired small plots of land by purchase, by marriage, or by inheritance: though, everyone was permitted equal access to the common land, which was primarily used for grazing. Continue reading Changes in English Agriculture
In his article “Pottery in Antiquity,” Cristian Violatti examines why pottery was so widespread among different cultures, the techniques used to create early pottery, and what the complexity of those techniques suggests for societies at the time. Continue reading Pottery in Antiquity
In the excerpt on printing from D.S.L. Cardwell’s “Turning Points in Western Technology: A Study of Technology, Science and History,” Cardwell describes how the process of publishing books was revolutionized by the printing press.
Continue reading Cardwell “Printing Press”