Blog Post #2 Gender Pay Gap

Despite there have been a long way to address inequality between men and women, it still persists today. Pay gap is one of these inequality issues between women and men that refers to the difference in wages and salaries between them. The gender pay gap demonstrate how unfair access to opportunities maintains disparity between the genders, women earn less money than men. A well-known example of discrimination in pay between genders is Lilly Ledbetter, who had worked in at the Goodyear plant in Gadsden for almost 20 years. Ledbetter experienced sexual harassment at her work and her boss told her that he didn’t think a woman should be working in the factory. In the same time, her coworkers had bragged about their overtime pay even though it was not allowed for them to show off their pay. So, she did not know and did not receive the same payments likes other her male counterparts until a colleague left her “an anonymous note”, disclosed she has been making thousands of dollars less than three men in the same position. Ms. Ledbetter was complaining to be the subject of discrimination and her case went to trial. After that, the jury decided to give her back-pay and roughly $3.3 million in compensatory and punitive damages for pay discrimination. Less than two years after the Ledbetter decision both the House and Senate passed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009. The Act was the first piece of legislation signed by US President Barack Obama.

Payscale shows in its 2019 report on the state of the pay gap. The report is exploring issues indicated a pay gap in different positions among different genders. Even though, the difference between the earnings of women and men has decreased, considerable disparity between the earnings still remains. Based on the findings of this report, the median salary for men is about 21% higher than the median salary for women. According to the report, with controlled gender pay gap which takes the ratio of median earnings of all women to all men, women and men who have the same employment characteristics doing the similar jobs, the women earn $0.98 for every dollar earned by an equivalent man which is still there is a different. With uncontrolled gender pay gap, the report states that women still make only $0.79 for every dollar men’s counterpart make.

In general, keep in mind the data shows the uncontrolled gender pay gap does not take into account important reasons that may affect pay levels. Example of these reasons maternity leave, years of experience, job title, location, education levels of employees, etc.

Also, the report discusses other issues related to racial wage gap, women of color, women with advanced degrees. According to the report, women are not one homogenous group. There are women of color and women of different races. They face more challenges in getting fair pay and advancing in the workplace compared to white women. White women on average make more than black women and Hispanic women that suffer wider pay gaps who have started their jobs in lower paying positions.

Also, according to data from Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that women constitute the larger number of occupations in workforce such as healthcare, personal care & service, education, training, office & administrative support, and community & social services. On the other hand, the large majority of men occupied careers such as construction, installation and maintenance, architecture & engineering, computer science and transportation. However, there are a persistent difference pay gap between them in many areas.

The report concluded that despite employers try to advocate a meritocracy, the pay decisions making do not take into a consideration a merit-based culture. The employers do not appreciate education/degrees equally between men and women and that discrepancy in pay is clear even with controlling other compensable factors.

It’s not just paying that is unequal, it’s also the type of position that women have. According to Seltzer (2017) in her report (80 Cents on the Dollar), the percentage of women holding the leadership positions much less than men particularly in higher education and they also are paid less. The report shows that women are paid less in 12 executive positions and that in half of those positions, the difference is more than 10%.

In fact, the Payscale report (2019) mentioned that female workers are less commonly tend to hold high-level, high-paying jobs than men. There are some structural barriers that prevent female workers from growth in the workplace this is known as opportunity gap.

In conclusion, it is a sad reality that even with changing times, women remain behind in salary. I think gender discrimination or gender stereotypes about women’s abilities has still played a significant role in having this disparity. Consequentially, the gender pay gap has become another reason that hinders women from pursuing certain majors and positions. Even though some institutions have already taken steps in reducing gender wage gap, this will take a great amount of time to reform the system and there are certain institutions have not made any progress and there is still more work to be done.

In my opinion if women have higher positions this will increase the women power and authority to address the problem since as a mentioned above some women tend to choose to go into lower paying careers (for example, going into nursing instead of surgery, going into social science fields instead of tech and engineering which are male dominated). The problem will be solved when women go to study majors that lead to high-paying career.

Also, women should have enough skill to negotiate their salaries. They lack important skills to advocate for themselves when it is a time to negotiate about increase salaries.

Finally, women can discuss with employers about public policy such as The Paycheck Fairness Act that is a policy seeks to more effective reform to injured party of discrimination in the payment of wages on the basis of sex, and for other purposes. This policy protects women workers when asking about wage and salary.



Before coming to the United States, I had no idea what diversity means. In my country, most students in educational setting are Saudi and we are all Muslim and female students (gender separation) based on religious and cultural norms of kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Since, I’ve started my program, I’ve had experience with diverse students. I realize this is a new diversity space I have never imagined. I usually think about how we can define the diversity. I know the diversity refers to many variables. As we know about the diversity iceberg last class, some of these variables are visible, such as gender, color, and race; less visible such as age, socioeconomic class; invisible such as, religion, sexual orientation, life experience, education and skills. In the same time, diversity has many benefits to provide for educational setting, such as exchanging the cultures, ideas, opinions and thoughts even learning new languages among students, faculty, etc.
However, if I want to think about diversity in higher education institutions, I find it is hot topic and the universities with diversity in students, instructors, and stuff means they are welcoming everyone who wants to apply. I think to increase any university’s quality, diversity should be one of university mission and goals. However, enhancing diversity with universities is more complex. In any diversity space, there are a multitude of different perspectives from different backgrounds and universities with different perspectives should be taken into consideration different challenges to promote diversity in order to have better global community.
Educators who are working to enhance diversity should understand different points of view among students, faculty, and staff. I have read an article written by Manning, its title is “Philosophical Underpinnings of Student Affairs Work on Difference”, the author argued understanding multiple perspectives on the meaning of difference and the concept of diversity assists educators in their work. Manning confirmed all educators have a perspective on diversity articulated or not that supports their work. She outlined seven philosophical positions that inform university educators’ beliefs about diversity. These are political correctness, historical analysis, color-blind, diversity, cultural pluralism, anti-oppression, and social justice.
For example, diversity concentrates on structural diversity or numerical representations of groups on campus. Color-blind perspective believes in equality and does not see ethnic and racial differences and considerate them as invisible or irrelevant. Political correctness concentrates on using the correct language “talking the talk without walking the walk”. Cultural pluralism has two different meaning: assimilation or acculturation. Assimilation occurs when one culture is forced to adopt the ways of the dominant culture while acculturation involves blending cultures by choice.
Thus, according to Manning (2009), recognizing where they stand in this matrix allows educators to work more effectively with students, faculty, and staff about the complex issue of difference. I think each of these positions have their features and may lead educators to have different priorities in the higher education setting.
In general, recognizing one’s approach helps educators to understand the motivations, belief, and goals in order to take purposeful action associated with a particular perspective.

Manning, K. (2009). Philosophical underpinnings of student affairs work on difference. About Campus, 14(2), 11-17.
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​Hello everyone,
This is Rania! My preferred pronouns are she/her/hers. I am a PhD student in Instructional Design and Technology. I have been a Middle School Mathematics teacher with a Master of Instructional Technology degree, a Bachelor of Mathematics degree and a Professional Diploma in Education, all from King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Since I had earned Master degree, I have had high expectations of initiating my career as a lecturer of Instructional technology at a Saudi university. For I was, and still I am, eager to utilize my knowledge in an applicable manner through equipping novice teachers with the tools and skills they need to be effective educators and presenting studies that can forward the study and application of the science in my country.
For my research, I am focusing on increasing access to education so that all students can have a good education, regardless of geographic location or socioeconomic status. I am particularly interested in hybrid learning as a method to allow more students to access education. Also, I am interested in topics that related to instructional technology and the use of modern educational techniques and instructional tools. During my teaching experiences, I introduced electronic games, computer applications and digital imagery to convey and simplify the material to my students in the most effective and time efficient manner possible.
Outside of school, I enjoy traveling and the idea of exploring new things through different perspectives. Also, I like cooking and watching movies in my free time. I always wish to make more friends of diverse backgrounds and perspectives and visit more places to enrich my exposure and experience.