In 1929 the Chinese Nationalist Party, also known as the Kuomintang, made advancements into Soviet territory. They had just recently eliminated the Chinese Communist, while the Soviet Union had obtained ownership of the Chinese Eastern Railroad, “with the overthrow of the tsarist government and the October Revolution” (Siegelbaum). The Kuomintang sought to regain control of the railroad in the East. In May of 1929 the Chinese hit numerous positions along the railroad, attacking dozens of Russian officials and citizens.The Soviet Union openly condemned the attacks, but the Chinese continued their raids until they controlled the Eastern Railroad. Finally, the Soviets launched an return attack to retake the Railroad. They used superior airpower and tanks to regain control of the railroads. This event inspired “US Secretary of State Harold Stimson to invoke the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) to prevent war, the main result of which was a flurry of angry exchanges between Washington and Moscow. In 1933 the Soviet government initiated discussions with the Japanese for the sale of the no-longer profitable CER to the puppet state of Manchukuo” Siegelbaum.