During Prokudin-Gorskii’s multiple railroad borne photography trips, he took pictures of everything that was Russian at the time. Those pictures ranged from photos of peasants, beautiful landscapes, and manufacturing techniques, all the way to noble elites, and agriculture. For example this picture from the region around the Sim River, depicts an admittedly blurry photo of a expansive field of Buckwheat. At the time buckwheat was one of the major food sources in Russia, and one of the main livelihoods of many peasants. In earlier Russian history, the traditional grains grown and eaten were rye and oats. After the Emancipation of the serfs in 1861, wheat began to take over as the main grain in Russia. Before the Emancipation, wheat had mostly been grown by landlords, on what was called the demesne, or the personal land of the landlord, and was primarily held for exports by the landlords. After the emancipation, wheat ended up also being grown by the emancipated serfs themselves, which led to the large uptake in exports shown by how in 1910, Russian wheat made up 36.4% of the worlds wheat trade.
In the background of the picture you also see what the world digital library describes as a horse drawn plow. Even in the early 20th century horses were still heavily utilized the world around as the main beast of burden used in agriculture. It wouldn’t be until the 1930-1940s before tractors came onto the scene in large numbers.
What we are most likely seeing in this photo is an example of strip farming. In other words, the arable land would be divided into strips of land, which the Mir (commune) would then divvy up to the different households in the village. This was done so as to “maintain equality between households” (Agriculture in the Russian Empire, Wikipedia)
The picture has some unique aspects just in regards to the photography of the time, where due to the supremely long exposure times needed in order to take a photo, the subject of the photo would be unable to move for the duration of the photo being taken. In this pictures case, we can see how a breeze likely moved the stalks of buckwheat, blurring them in the end product which we see here.
While many of the photos taken by Prokudin-Gorskii were of better quality, and maybe more interesting than this, it’s hard to list something of more everyday importance in this era then the food and livelihood of the vast majority of peasants.