Research ethics is chosen as the topic of this post. As defined by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (1) besides respecting, privacy, and autonomy; during research and for publishing of the research result the following aspects must be considered:
- minimizing harms and risks and maximize benefits
- take special precautions with vulnerable populations
- strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly
The details of the research integrity concepts are pictured in the following image adopted from “enago academy” website (2).
Research misconduct was defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP) in 2000 by the US federal government and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) established in 1993 in the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has been overseeing and researching the integrity of research activities conducted in the field of public health services since 2000. ORI provided a list of research misconduct case summaries, which are reported because of the data falsification, data fabrication, and image manipulation.
The following paragraph is an example of the case reported on the HHS website (3) and (4).
The misconduct act was recognized in several published papers and one presentation of a granted research. According to the report, the type of misconduct, in this case, was an intentional fabrication and falsification of the data, and image manipulation by Dr. Ramadugu while he was working as a postdoctoral researcher in the University of Michigan.
The researcher intentionally manipulated the result of NMR spectra images of another unrelated research to use as the result of the research which was granted by the National Institute of Health. Due to the falsified reports Dr. Ramadugu was debarred and agreed to be suspended for a period of 5 years by the administrative office.