Piller and Bryant: Paved Highways and the Origin of the Automobile Engine Article Summaries

The first of these two articles, by Dan Piller, discusses the social implications of paved highways in the United States. While the U.S. government was worrying about wars and diplomacy around the world, all generations of Americans were utilizing highways in different ways. Piller gives in example of this in that highways not only allowed cities to expand outward but also created new markets from the traffic that developed. Finally, paved highways allowed for products to be shipped from one place to another in a much cheaper and more efficient manner than before.

The second of these two articles, by Lynwood Bryant, discusses the background and early influences that led to the creation of the first automobile engine. The article gets very technical on the specifics of how gas combustion creates massive amounts of heat within the engine to generate power through a system called the Otto Cycle. The impact that automobiles would have on world society and economics would become crucial during the 20th century. People everywhere could individually transport themselves, other, and even products across mass amounts of land at very impressive speeds.

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These two technological developments would work hand in hand throughout the 1900’s and into the 21st century to help the United States cement itself as a major manufacturer and distributor worldwide. Highways and the automobiles that drove on them could transport goods from one side of the country to the other, allowing for international trade to countries from Europe to Asia.

By: Giuseppe Vitale

If you would like to see a cool timeline of the different stages of development over time for the automobile engine or how ancient cultures utilized the paved roads of their day, please check the links below.

https://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/mysteries/auto.html

http://www.ancestraljourneys.org/earlyroads.shtml

Word count: 288 words

Emailing: A Whole New Way to Communicate

We use it everyday, maybe not as much as say instant messaging, otherwise known as texting, but people around the world send emails via the internet every single day. Most people always jump to companies like Google, Microsoft, or their local providers such as Verizon or Comcast as one of the first companies to begin the email trend. However, the first true EMAIL message was sent through the program as early as 1971 by a man named Ray Tomlinson. Before the end of the decade the program would become a widely used system among various types of companies including military contractors.  By the turn of the century, the email system was being used by billions of people across the globe and multiple computer companies attempted to put their own spin on it.

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The social and economic impact email has had on modern society can never be fully measured. For people in business, life was made much easier since you no longer had to send a message in the mail or call someone, you just had to send them an email. Families were now able to keep in touch no matter where they were in the world. Anybody who needed to send a relatively quick message to someone else could do so without even leaving their chair. People even began to meet other strangers online and would send each other messages through emailing the. The universal use of email not only made people much more efficient in their given jobs but created a whole new social dynamic between individuals that had never been seen before in human history.

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Sources:

http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/email.html

http://www.inventorofemail.com/history_of_email.asp#Introduction