What exactly is Viola referring to when he asks the reader “Will There Be Condominiums in Data Space?” By that question I mean, what does a condominium have to do with data space? After over-analyzing numerous definitions of the term, I discovered a few reoccurring words that must relate to what Viola is asking. A condominium is “a large property complex” that is “divided into individual units.” Now I’m wondering if the large property complex part refers to this idea of “Data space” – “a conceptual geometry, theoretically infinite, within which various forms may be created, manipulated, extended and destroyed.” Are we going to divide up the data space like a condominium or are we going to navigate around this data space as a whole?
If you can follow me here, then Viola’s three structures to describe patterns of information will make sense. You can take the most popular structure called “branching” wherein the navigator takes the top to bottom approach. This makes most sense to me because it is linear and the exact path to follow is quite obvious. Viola also highlights the fact that this system is utilized in our education system; it’s very predetermined and definitely easier than the alternatives…but easier is almost never better if you ask me. A new diagram called the “matrix” structure is an alternative way of viewing information, wherein the viewer can enter at any point, move in any direction, at any speed. Unlike branching, this structure is not linear because the navigator can take any path through the information however it maintains the idea of parameters. This idea is not sustained in the last structure called the “schizo” or “spaghetti” model which gives way to the concept that “all directions are equal but all are not equal. Everything is irrelevant and significant at the same time.” It’s easy to get lost in the randomness of this structure, it’s actually impossible not to. I can relate this structure to a lot of the readings we had, especially “medium is the message” and the big question in McCloud’s Time Frames, is linear progression really necessary?
I don’t think Viola is emphasizing holistic over parts or vice versa, I think he is focusing on this idea that you can’t understand what you’re looking at unless you know what you’re NOT looking at. In other words, when analyzing a piece of information, keep in mind what you are NOT analyzing because often times, what is missing could play a big part in understanding.
So many of the readings we have done emphasize viewer participation. The uniqueness of each individuals’ thought process is essential to holistic and thorough learning, to the greater good of society. Does that make each and everyone of us the “condominiums of data space”? I think so. and I don’t think that is a bad thing at all. Viewing information in a linear, parts-focused, condominium-like manner is not helpful but viewing information in our unique way, without a set of predetermined steps IS helpful. I think that is what a lot of these writers are trying to get at with their essays and I think that is what Dr. C is attempting here with this class.
I was not surprised by my fondness of this essay, if you could even call it that. The speedy understanding McCloud provided through his alternative media (or medium?) was such a relief but also quite surprising because the ideas he presented were very complex. I mean think about it, any time someone is trying to describe the relationship between motion, sound, space, and/or time, things normally get pretty sticky. These ideas are so complicated because they are so intangible. For example, I would have had to read and reread this quote “as our eyes are moving through space, they’re also moving through time” had it not been accompanied by appropriate images and accurately bolded/italicized words, which made me remember the reading techniques Dr. C had us go through in class and also made this comic pretty relevant, aside from the fact that it is one of McCloud’s.
As this comic strip explains, pictures are a much more effective and time-efficient alternative to writing, which involves the decoding of symbols. The quickness with which I picked up on McCloud’s points was alarming, in a good way of course and made me wonder if and how this media style could be applied to education. Reading comics seems like such a natural process and I am interested as to why it hasn’t been more thoroughly researched as a means for education! That sounds absurd but then again, the idea that tweeting and blogging could be educational seemed pretty out there to me a few short months ago.
I especially enjoyed reading the comic which went off in all different directions, with a unique and varying twist on the story. This form could be quite useful in conveying multiple approaches to a complex problem in the classroom. I’m sure my interest with comics as an educational tool has been long-discussed, but it never dawned on me so as we talked about in class before, although I’m not the first to have this epiphany, I still value it as I had an eye-opening realization which I will continue to research!
I honestly had a hard time accepting the fact that “the medium is the message.” The statement seems bleak and quite contrary to everything I have learned prior to reading McLuhan’s essay. For me, the content has always been important. When I am reading a textbook and trying to understand an idea, I am not thinking about the book in my hands, I am thinking about the content in front of my eyes. I suppose I fall into the category of those who are “long accustomed to splitting and dividing all things as a means of control” but in all honesty, who from my generation does not/did not belong to this category? For it is part of our homogenized culture, the accepted and rational way of solving problems, of thinking about and viewing the world. After all, McLuhan states himself that the “criminal appears as a nonconformist.” Who wants to be classified as a criminal? For that very reason, I am going to be the “nonconformist” here and voice my confusion with this material. Hopefully I will work my way to the solution through the questioning of his ideas.
Why yes, I am a perfectionist and someone who revels in the feeling of “control” which for me has been achieved through a step-by-step, “sequential” process. When did that become such a problem?
I guess it was in my senior year of high school, when words could not simply be memorized anymore. I believe I was reading Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina and I realized there was no possible way I could memorize all the vast concepts that were discussed. It was that moment that I realized my education was missing something, I had been numb to the information – “…sounds did not echo nor thought develop” before this day. I had read all of those words before, therefore the content was nothing new however it caused a shift in the way I approached learning, “a change of pattern” introduced to my every day customs. Does that make the medium the message? When considering the meaning of context, I think so. If the medium is the channel through which an idea is communicated, wouldn’t that make context, the parts of discourse that surround a word or give meaning to a passage, a type of medium? I think so. If this crazy idea makes any sense to you then the McLuhan’s statement that the “content of any medium is always another medium” will provide some insight into my thinking. Wouldn’t this sort of recursion indicate that the content is equally as important as the medium? Again, I think so. If this is the case though, how can one even decipher between the “medium” and the “message”? Maybe that is the whole point of McLuhan’s signature phrase.
I think today’s computer users take for granted the immense capabilities we have. It was only when I read Personal Dynamic Media that I had this epiphany. Kay and Goldberg envision a computer system that handles information “in quantities” similar to “human sensory systems” (394). That sounds pretty spectacular if you ask me and that is precisely what I have, what we have, at our very fingertips, at this very moment. A system that processes information faster than we can even fathom, a system comparable to something we only marvel at in a biology lecture when the workings of our nervous system are broken down.
The idea of not having a “personal computing medium,” tailored to my specific needs sounds absurd. It’s amazing how different technologies become the defining factor for different generations. Generation Y (my generation) is characterized by an increased use of digital technology and media. The following generation, “Generation Z,” is characterized by even more advanced technologies, like tablet computers and the iPad and iPhone. How appropriate that the next generation is referred to as “iGeneration.” It is interesting to think about this, especially when I browse through the delicious stack entitled “Humans are Machines” because the stuff on there sounds a little science fiction to me but I know that with time, these far-fetched ideas will become our reality, just as Kay and Goldberg’s Dynabook did.
After completing Nelson’s essay, I couldn’t help but hone in on the small section about big and small approaches. I think it especially tied in to my previous post which questioned the futility or usefulness of curriculum division and task specialization. I am wondering if the “Piecemeal” approach, or correct me if I am wrong in making this connection, the “Bottom-up” approach, assists in the extreme division that seems to take place in our minds more and more as we progress through the education system. It seems to me that this approach focuses on the “knitty-gritty” too much and too fast. I can make no sense out of the idea that to teach a subject, the teacher should start with the small and complex details; to me, that sounds a lot like skipping a step. The “Big Picture” approach, which is perhaps synonymous with the “Top-down” approach” comes across as much more logical; seeing an overview first and then starting with the subsystems that are semi-familiar sounds like a more sensible way of learning.
Just as Nelson said, the importance of the differences between these approaches is the epitome of “McLuhanism” and his idea that “the medium is the message.” The way the “content” is presented to the student expands or limits the destiny of that specific content. By destiny I mean, if the information is actually retained and relayed to others or if it takes the typical route of “in one ear and out the other.” Isn’t that the purpose of an education? Aren’t students supposed to absorb all this knowledge that is being thrown at them in order to “spread the wealth” in the future, whether it be in passing conversation or in their field of work? When knowledge is shared, various points of view are formed. Discussion and the sharing of ideas makes the world a better place to live in because it creates balance. If content is being shared in a fundamentally-wrong way, starting in the classroom, then society as a whole will suffer. Maybe we are suffering right now. Maybe the way in which approaches to teaching subjects are having an effect on the way people in different occupations share their knowledge.
I might be bouncing all over the place here but I truly believe that Big and Small Approaches, McLuhanism, and mind divisions which occur in schools and jobs all tie together. I didn’t even realize how interrelated these topics were until I started typing this blog post. It is amazing to see how useful this blog is becoming, as it provides a MEDIUM for me to reflect on the assigned readings.
I only got through about half of Nelson’s “Computer Lib/ Dream Machines” but so far, I have thoroughly enjoyed his insightful thoughts. Something he talks about that really interests me is how knowledge becomes power. He also makes the relevant point that knowledge leads to a sort of “priesthood” because people who hold power become selfish of it.
Experts in their respective fields tend to “hoard” their knowledge but often times don’t realize it. It’s like there is this preconceived notion that each field in the workforce or each subject in the school curriculum must be precisely divided. Outsiders of a specific field will not understand what is going on within that field just like “tie-ins to previous interests and knowledge” are not encouraged when focusing on a specific subject in school. With all this division, it is hard to make the relevant and necessary connections needed to relate similar ideas and get a holistic view of the way things truly work in everyday life.
Then there’s this idea of “specialization” which is hailed as the defining factor in the human race. Many people attribute the success of homo sapiens over neanderthals to the development of trade and to the specialization of tasks. Is this the reason why we humans are so eager to organize things according to subject or field? Is it maybe ingrained in our being?
Nelson doesn’t seem to think so. He talks about how the education system actually creates “chains” for the free-born human mind. Nelson thinks we should view the whole picture when it comes to working and learning instead of making divisions where we see fit according to the way our brains are organized. I cannot decide if these divisions that exist in the minds of many people today are natural or nurtured. I also cannot decipher if the divisions inhibit or activate intellectual thought. I suppose I will reflect on this post when I complete the reading.
I couldn’t help but wonder as I was reading “A Research Center for Augmenting” if Engelbart is truly satisfied with the evolution of his work. In the introduction, the author writes that “computer interfaces should be optimized for expert use.” That is what Engelbart had in mind at least. After watching parts of the Bootstrap Seminar in 1992 and hearing him discuss the futility of training wheels in teaching a child how to ride a bike, I am curious as to how he feels about the highly “user-friendly” Internet we use today. It seems that Engelbart envisioned a system of “creators” rather than “users” which may be evident in the highly complex description of the project. If his goal was to truly to “allow people to work together to solve difficult problems more easily” then he may be slightly disappointed if you ask me. Frankly speaking, a lot of the “problems” discussed online through Yahoo! answers and various search engines are reflections of laziness and a mere continuation of the learning style that we have been proactively criticizing in class and through our blog posts – someone seeking an answer simply types in the question and there is the answer. Next step, skim over the description of how the said answer was reached (if a description is even provided) and just cut to the chase! Then you can prove to your teacher in this graded homework assignment how well you know the material and of course, you will be rewarded with an A, right?
Maybe the Internet, this vastly helpful tool, was only meant for the experts. If you think about it, the Internet is a public good, meaning we can’t eliminate those who will undoubtedly abuse it. As with any public good, overconsumption is likely and then we have a “tragedy of the commons” on our hands.
Although we have “maximized the coverage of our documentation” as discussed in the essay, it seems we have done so to a point of overconsumption, is this whole thing just a means to an end – an end of complex, innovative thought? An end to thinking for ourselves. Not to tie in another economic term, but maybe this user-friendly interface has enabled the “free-rider problem.” Now anyone can reap the benefits of a “free software movement,” not just the experts. It all depends on the probability of abuse.
After watching the 1968 Demo I am really stuck on the idea of the NLS (computer system) serving as a tool to navigate through complex structure with the utilization of hypertext links and the mouse (a.k.a. the “bug”). It really relates to the idea of “associational thinking” and the idea of “hierarchical structure” as the user can select exactly what he/she will learn. So when we think of the computer as a means of education, it is interesting to think of it in this way. Some would say that this ability to see what you want to see whenever, wherever, is desirable and enables a cultivated perspective on any given concept. Some would also argue, as I learned a few semesters ago in an introductory political science course, that the constant availability and accessibility of information complicates the decision-making scene. My professor expounded on this point by asserting that computer technology is powerful in making barriers and filters stronger and higher (more of a selective, intentional, purposive process) and in turn keeps many users limited to their own viewpoint, because we only seek out concepts we can “grok” if you will.
I cannot decide which viewpoint I believe and I think it truly depends on the user and relates back to the idea of how our education system is designed. Students who are only concerned with the grade, who only seek out the answer rather than value the process, will most likely filter out foreign ideas and concepts where as students who truly want to learn and become more educated on a truly useful and applicable level, will seek out concepts that present a challenge, that engage innovate ways of thinking.
As much as I hate to say this, after struggling through Engelbart’s report, I experienced recursion: while I was trying to understand how computers could “augment human intellect” I was using the computer to “augment” my own “intellect.” The reading was lengthy and on the complex-side so I was utilizing the Internet to help me understand what exactly was being discussed. I was able to find a small description on wikipedia, in addition to an array of blog responses. These sources, along with the interview posted by Dr. C, enabled me to better grasp and understand the report.
Something I honed in on while I was reading the interview was the idea of a paradigm holding us back because it is a widely accepted and assumed idea, value, object, action, etc; a social “norm” if you will. Prior to what the interview calls Engelbart’s “epiphany,” there were three computers in the country. We can see how things have changed as I am currently sitting in the math empo surrounded by an overwhelming amount of these machines. Since then, I believe we have surpassed one paradigm in respect to computer technology; it was once considered a pretty basic device that could only be used to assist in computations. Today, we use it as a means of “augmentation” to an extent but I do not think we have reached what Engelbart had in mind…not yet at least. We use computers and the Internet as an accessory. It is something we find extremely convenient and useful. However, I think most people would agree they could survive without this convenience. If we can better utilize this technology to enable us to more accurately address “complex problems” then I think we will have fulfilled Engelbart’s vision. This class is a prime example of how his vision can be carried out as we focus on using the Web to gain a more comprehensive view of the world and its challenges. If we can learn to enhance our current capabilities to create a more useful learning environment, to educate students in a way that promotes a focus on the process and question aspect instead of the mere answer aspect, then we will have successfully and sufficiently “augmented the human intellect” using the computer; we will have established a new paradigm. However, once established, keep in mind the dangers of getting comfortable, of maintaining “status quo” and remember the radical idea Engelbart had over half a century ago.
If today’s technology had not already encompassed Licklider’s speculations for interaction between humans and electronic computers, I would not have been able to process some of the ideas in his article, Man-Computer Symbiosis. It is interesting to think of the respective roles of each part of this symbiotic relationship. Licklider makes an very valid point, one that remains today; he says “instructions directed to computers specify courses; instructions directed to human beings specify goals” – the key words being “courses” and “goals.” Humans for the most part have full control over what they find on computers, especially through the utilization of the handy-dandy search bar (which relates back to the associational way we think, discussed last class). The search bar, among other technical processes which I have yet to understand completely, provides the “courses” through which we reach our “goals.” Humans rely so heavily on computers today for the “clerical” activities Licklider describes. Think about how many times we use our calculators to do simple math; most of us do not even trust our own mental math today. The fact that our heavy reliance on computers has not compromised our control of them represents the sheer success of this symbiotic relationship.
On a side note, something I found kind of paradoxical for today’s time was the statement that established books as a “functionally important” component “with-in the context of man-computer symbiosis.” With dependence on computers increasing exponentially, it seems that libraries become more and more futile everyday. This is a major theme in news today and it shows how much our values have changed, all because of this successful symbiosis. It’s kind of bittersweet if you think about it. Current technological innovations, like the Kindle, the Nook, and the many assortment of smart-phones, cause the phasing out of a centuries old information source, the book. What’s the old saying? When one door closes, another one opens?