The Bolsheviks never were too fond of the Russia Orthodox Church. To be politically correct, they loathed it. Orthodoxy is something that has been a staple in Russia since 988, over one thousand years. Considering its ties with the country, it was not something that was just going to leave by itself, and The Bolsheviks knew this. At the beginning of the Revolution, Bolshevik leadership saw the church as one of its main enemies, because of its ability to spread word to so many peasants in such a short matter of time. Therefore, they strongly targeted its destruction to try and lead to its demise.
The Czar, according to old Russian Orthodox philosophy, was God’s official ruler. Those who hated the Czar usually hated the Church as well, because they went one in the same. Just how the Catholics have a Pope, the Russian Orthodox Church has something similar, but he is called a Patriarch. Together, the Patriarch and the Czar would rule Russian hand in hand, one focusing completely on the religious aspect while the other did everything else. Religion was mandatory, and those who were lucky enough would even be sent to schools with a focus on religious education (sponsored by the church). The Czar would also use the Church to spread information; priests would give sermons that supported what he was doing. Together, the system worked elegantly.
With the emergence of communism into the political scheme, the church came under attack. One of the first thing that the Bolsheviks did was convert the Christian private schools into education reform centers. So all those children who used to be learning about religious matters, quickly learned how the church was hindering reform. Young children all across the country were placed in to this exact scenario. Next, they destroyed the churches control of religion by passing the Freedom of Conscious Law, making it so you no longer had to be Russian Orthodox. The church fought back by excommunication many Bolsheviks, but this was a weak punishment to those who did not even care in the first place. Clergy also tried to raise moral again the Bolshevicks by attacking their ideology from the pulpit, but words only went so far against an armed Revolution.
This move by the Bolsheviks had an enormous impact on the people of Russia today. Although most are somewhat offiliated with the Church, it does not have a presence anything like it did in the past.