Weekly Journal. Week 14

This week I will run the last survey of my class project. I hope that students will find some time to answer the survey questions and the participation rate will not be too low.

Virginia Tech, as many other universities, asked students not to return to campus until the spring semester if they travel for Thanksgiving. I think that some students may feel like they would be able to focus better in their dorms. However I hope that all the students will successfully end this semester and our university will do everything possible to help them.

Hopefully, students’ concerns about the end of this semester will not discourage them from the participation in the last survey, and the students will express their opinion about online teaching in our institution.

Additional Blog Post

In my last post for this class I would like to discuss about the notion of smartness.

According to the Cambridge English Dictionary, smartness is the quality of being intelligent, or able to think quickly or intelligently in difficult situations. I completely agree with this definition, however I would add the ability to solve problems, even though I consider that it is mentioned here implicitly.

I also believe that the main objective of higher education is to help learners to be smart, not just to obtain enough knowledge to be an expert in some particular field. Unfortunately sometimes being knowledgeable is mistakenly (in my opinion) seen as being smart.

One of examples of this confusion is that some people believe that being good at intellectual games like “Jeopardy!” means being smart. This game has spawned  versions in many countries in the world, but everywhere in order to answer the questions, contestant needs broad based knowledge and a good memory. So, answering the quesions itself doesn’t mean being smart, but it means being knowledgeable.

Here are some examples of questions (with correct answers) from “Jeopardy!“:

1. According to C.S. Lewis, it was bordered on the east by the Eastern Ocean and on the north by the River Shribble. (Narnia)

2. To marry Elizabeth, Prince Philip had to renounce claims to this southern European country’s crown. (Greece)

3. Hard times,” indeed! A giant quake struck New Madrid, Mo., on Feb. 7, 1812, the day this author struck England. (Charles Dickens)

As you can see, there is no way to answer these questions using logical thinking: you either know (or remember) the answer, or not. In other words,  answering these questions needs some specific knowledge.

Unfortunately, sometimes students in different countries are forced to memorize a lot of information (historical dates, formulas, definitions, etc.) But it also important that students should be able to use this information in problem-solving. Now let me introduce another intellectual game, “What? Where? When?”, which is well known in Russia and other former Soviet Union countries. The questions of this game usually do not require specific knowledge, but only common knowledge; and should be answered mostly by logical thinking and intuition. This game is played by teams, so answering the questions is a result of the conversation between the team members who use their logical thinking and intuition.

Here are some examples of questions from “What? Where? When?” You can try to answer them using your logical thinking and intuition (I will not provide the correct answers, but if you are interested I can send you the answers in personal messages):


1. What does this map represent?


2. In the second half of the 19th century in Kentucky one could see the following situation: a man, walking on the street, eats an ice cream cone and then, in particular moment of time, puts it into his back pocket and gradually speeds up. Such situations forced the state government to set the law which made illegal to carry an ice cream cone in a back pocket. What was the reason to use an ice cream this weird way?


3. The Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern took part in an advertising campaign calling to visit her country. The leitmotif of this campaign was the webpage known to you – Error 404 (look at the picture below). What is this country?


4. In 2004 a floating barge capsized because too many people crowded on one side of it. This happened when the barge sailed near Hippie Hollow, which is the only public … … in Texas. Which two words did we hide from you in the previous sentence?


5. During several months after her second marriage, Martha lived with her second husband, the colonel, in this plantation of her first husband, a rich American planter Daniel, who passed away several years earlier:

This plantation had the same name which later was given to the place where Martha and her second husband planned to move, but they did not move there. What is the name of that place and this plantation?


6. When Lee Iacocca worked at the Ford Motor Company, he was sent on a business trip to the southern states. However his boss advised him to DO IT before this trip. Please answer exactly what to do.

Hope you can find the answers. I believe that schools, colleges, and universities should pay more attention to improving such skills of their students as logical thinking, intuition, insight.


Weekly Journal. Week 12

This week I will continue my discussion about issues in higher education that Donald Trump’s administration had about four years ago based on the article of Ryan Craig “The Top 10 Higher Education Issues We All Agree On”.

6. Outcomes should be about “distance traveled”.

According to Ryan Craig, it may well be that the reason Harvard is viewed as a world-class university while your local school is not is entirely due to the caliber of inputs (i.e., student talent) that the institution attracts. So when we measure outcomes, we need to ensure we’re not focusing on metrics that correlate entirely with inputs, but rather on “value added” by the institution to students. “Distance traveled” is value added with a twist: providing extra points to institutions with a demonstrated track record of enrolling low SES students and producing strong education and employment results. The critical importance of distance traveled in education and employment will be reified when employers see data demonstrating that, at the candidate level, distance traveled is consistently predictive of career success. [1]

I completely agree with this statement, this “distance traveled” measure is probably the most important criteria to evaluate the education process in different universities. However I could not find any data to compare the outcomes that Ryan Craig mentioned, so I do not really know is there any change with this issue.

7. Technology is key to improving learning.

The author of this article states that utilizing technology in teaching can go a long way to improve efficacy for a given cohort. Lectures must be replaced by not only flipped classrooms, but dynamic classrooms that require students to view lectures ahead of time and answer formative assessments so faculty are able to focus classroom time where students have an incomplete understanding.

According to many sources, in last years technology indeed has improved education. Definitely there is a positive change in this field.  [2] [3]

8. Assessments are needed to save the liberal arts.

According to the writer, over the past several decades we have seen an exodus from liberal arts into pre-professional programs (business, healthcare, education, technology) – one that is more pronounced for lower SES students. Unless and until colleges and universities are able to document that liberal arts programs actually produce the outcomes we’ve taken on faith, this exodus will continue and liberal arts programs will be increasingly a plaything for rich kids (who’ll use connections to get good first jobs, so it doesn’t matter what they study). Incorporating assessments demonstrating critical thinking, problem solving and situational judgment is the most likely way to convince employers (and students) of the value of our beloved liberal arts programs. [1]

In my opinion, critical thinking, problem solving and situational judgment are very important skills for all students and graduates. Honestly, it is difficult for me to evaluate the changes in this educational issue without data. Therefore, I cannot make any conclusion.

9. Follow the money.

Ryan Craig said that today (in 2017), colleges and universities get paid no matter what. If we’re serious about accomplishing any or all of the above, the federal government has two choices: it can condition funding on outcomes (à la Gainful Employment) or require schools to put “skin in the game.” It’s possible the Trump Administration and Republican Congress will do both, but my money is on the latter, which will come in the form of income share agreements (ISAs). Requiring colleges and universities to contribute a defined percentage of federal grants and loans in “risk capital” – sourced internally or externally – for each and every student will do more than any other single change to align institutions’ interests with student outcomes. It will be hard to make any progress in changing behavior as long as the current financing regimen remains in place. [1]

I did not find any real evidence that this situation changed. Colleges and universities still get paid no matter what.

10. Colleges are worth saving (especially the one you attended!).

According to the author, as enrollment patterns – exacerbated by demographic trends – continue to shift, an increasing number of colleges will experience declining revenue, particularly smaller colleges and universities outside of major urban areas. Because there are natural limits to discounting, out-of-state students, and television revenue for Division I football teams, most of these institutions will seek new survival strategies, including following the Sweet Briar playbook and sending out an S.O.S. to alumni. [1]

Alumni contributions to U.S. colleges and universities increased by 6.9% between fiscal year 2017 and fiscal year 2018, climbing to a grand total of $12.15 billion, according to a 2019 report from the Council for Advancement and Support of Education. Therefore I can conclude that colleges and universities efficiently use this approach [4]

In summary, we can see that some issues are not solved yet. But now it will be the attempt of solving them by another administration.


[1] https://www.forbes.com/sites/ryancraig/2017/01/20/the-top-10-higher-education-issues-we-all-agree-on/?sh=676b083fa876

[2] https://gsehd.gwu.edu/articles/5-ways-technology-has-improved-k-12-education

[3] https://www.trustradius.com/buyer-blog/how-technology-improves-education

[4] https://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/the-short-list-college/articles/universities-where-the-most-alumni-donate

Weekly Journal. Week 11

The article of Ryan Craig “The Top 10 Higher Education Issues We All Agree On” was written in January 2017. This article introduced the issues that president Trump administration was challenged in the very beginning of its term. Now I would like to discuss these issues and to try to evaluate the work of the Trump administration. Today I will introduce first five higher edication issues from this article.

1. Completion is the most powerful lever.

The author wrote that “with drop rates approaching 50% at many four-year institutions and 80% at many two-year colleges, there can be no disagreement that “solving” completion would produce many more college graduates than “solving” accessibility.” [1]

Now the overall dropout rate for undergraduate college students in the United States is 40%. [2] Therefore, we can state that there is a positive change regarding this issue.

2. Bachelor’s degree “addiction” is hurting students.

According to the Trump’s administration in 2017, bachelor’s degrees are an “addiction.” Although Trump’s Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos referenced vocational training as examples of new pathways, in the absence of any material evidence, it takes a Candide-like idealist to continue to insist that a bachelor’s degree is the optimal or only path to establishing the core cognitive and non-cognitive executive function skills that lead to successful white collar careers – particularly given the completion challenge. Alternative pathways and credentials that measure and guarantee outcomes will emerge for a wide range of professions and should be strongly encouraged from a public policy perspective. [1]

In February 2020 president Trump called for a $5.6 billion, or 7.8 percent, cut in Department of Education funding and reductions for most core funders of academic research, but also proposed a nearly $900 million increase in career and technical education funding that U.S. Education Secretary Betsy DeVos called “perhaps the largest increase in CTE ever.” [3] It looks like the current government did some job in this direction.

3. Colleges need to do much more to help graduates get great jobs.

Ryan Craig claims that unprecedented unemployment + underemployment rates for new graduates produced by the Great Recession has changed student behavior – likely unalterably given the affordability crisis. As a result, traditional arguments that “college prepares you for your fifth job, not your first job” increasingly fall on deaf ears; students know that if they don’t get a great first job, they’re much less likely to get a great fifth job. This means colleges need to do more than just increase career services budgets; they must ensure students are equipped with the technical skills employers increasingly require for entry-level positions.

I did not find any evidence that colleges did more to help their graduates get better jobs. So, let me assume that there is no change here.

4. Employers bear much of the blame.

According to the writer, employers have blithely and blindly driven credential inflation, insisting on bachelors and increasingly master’s degrees as requirements for positions that may not require them. Opaque Applicant Tracking Systems and imprecise job descriptions have turned getting in front of a human hiring manager into a “rigged” game, particularly for new graduates with little to no work experience. And while employers have put up technological walls to employment, they’ve been content to continue campus-based recruitment at a select number of schools because that’s the way it’s always been done. [1]

Unfortunately for students, I did not find evidence that employers changed their hiring policies. Therefore, no change.

5. Accountability shouldn’t start and end with for-profit colleges.

For Ryan Craig, there’s no question that many for-profit colleges took the logic of traditional colleges to its logical extreme: enrolling students in programs with an uncertain (and often very poor) return, taking advantage of the bachelor’s degree “addiction” enabled over decades by thousands of colleges and universities, and utilizing aggressive marketing and enrollment tactics to do so. There’s also no question that Gainful Employment metrics provide a useful (if somewhat flawed) way of filtering out low return-on-investment programs. [1]

Honestly, I am not sure how I can evaluate the changes regarding this issue. So I simply cannot answer whether there are some positive changes because this issue look more subjective rather that based on some data.

Next week I will discuss remaining five issues that Donald Trump’s administration had about four years ago.


[1] https://www.forbes.com/sites/ryancraig/2017/01/20/the-top-10-higher-education-issues-we-all-agree-on/?sh=676b083fa876

[2] https://educationdata.org/college-dropout-rates

[3] https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2020/02/11/trump-budget-would-boost-career-education-spending-cut-funds-college-aid-research

Future of the University

In this post I would like to present some my ideas about what should change in higher education. In my opinion, colleges and universities should pay much more attention to lifelong learning.

By definition, lifelong learning is the constant, ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated acquisition of knowledge and skills throughout a lifetime for either personal or professional reasons. This term recognizes that learning is not confined only to the classroom but takes place throughout life.

Lifelong learning can solve the continuing mismatch between education and the labor market. Therefore, in my opinion, universities should start to offer more customized and problem-solving education and, consequently, turn into the engaged university.

To support my opinion, I can provide the argument that lifelong learning is beneficial for both individuals and traditional colleges and universities. Learners can obtain greater productivity, better positions in the job market, and, as a result, higher income. On the other hand, having additional students means additional income for universities. And tuition and fee rates of lifelong learners should be higher comparing with rates of traditional learners. In addition, the increase of lifelong learning would positively impact the whole society because universities would offer more problem-solving education based on the real needs of the particular communities.

Weekly Journal. Week 10

In this post I will interpret the results of the second survey of my project.

The first main question  is “Based on your studying experience this semester, if you had a choice between different types of courses, what class would you choose?” The next figure shows the percentage of the answers by different characteristics of respondents.

As we can see, 41% of the respondents would choose in-person courses if they had this choice. 21% of the students would choose online classes. A hybrid class would be a choice of 27% of respondents. And 11% are indifferent. The results of the first survey were 58%, 11%, 18%, and 13% respectively.

The first two groups (freshmen vs. non-freshmen),  have similar numbers for in-person classes (41% and 43%). However, freshmen prefer less online and more hybrid courses than “older” students (17% against 28% and 31% against 20%).

Female students still prefer more online classes and less in-person cources. Hybrid classes are almost equally preferrable by both genders. And more male students are indifferent between classes if they had a choice.

The results of the second survey for the next two groups of respondents (students who have their families as the primary source of financing vs. other students using personal loans, scholarships, etc.) are mostly similar. Family-financed students prefer more hybrid classes and less of them are indifferent comparing with the second group.

I expected that students living on-campus would choose less online and hybrid cources and more in-person classes. This survey questioned this hypothesis. 32% of off-campus students would choose online classes, 16% of them would choose hybrid classes, and 42% would choose in-person classes, whereas these numbers for on-campus students are 11%, 37%, and 41% respectively. It is noticeable, that the percentage of off-campus students who would choose in-person courses is slightly higher than the percentage of on-campus students.

And finally, the highest percent of students who would choose online classes (40%) is among students who did not make decisions about their majors. The lowest percentage (14%) here is among students from other majors. 36% of students from other majors (the highest) and 14% (the lowest) from business-related would prefer hybrid classes. And 52% of students from business-related majors (the highest) and 14% (the lowest) of undecided students would prefer in-person classes.

The next question is “Based on your studying experience this semester, what is your opinion about online teaching at Virginia Tech?” Below you can see the results.

More than half of respondents (60%) have either strongly positive or positive opinion about online teaching. 27% have strongly negative or negative opinion. The first survey had 51% and 25% respectively.

63% freshmen have positive or strongly positive opinion, and 25% of them have negative or strongly negative. Whereas non-freshmen have 56% and 33% respectively. It should be noted that older students have more extreme (strongly positive or negative) opinions than freshmen.

Female respondents are more positive. Female students have more respondents with the positive opinion and less respondents with the negative opinion (68% – 19%) than male students (54% – 34%).

Family-financed students have less positive responses and more negative answers comparing with other students (58% and 29% against 68% and 23%). It is interesting that the first survey showed the opposite result.

On-campus students have more positive answers than off-campus students (64% against 56%) and less negative responses (23% againts 32%). And again, the first survey had the opposite result here.

The highest percentage of positive answers (80%) is among students with undecided majors. The lowest percentage of positive answers (44%) belongs to social science students. The same number  (44%) of them have negative opinions, which is the highest percentage of negative answers. The lowest percentages (10%) are respondents who did not choose their majors yet.

The next question is “Based on your studying experience this semester, do you agree or disagree with the following statement: I think that during this semester online teaching has a positive impact on my academic standing (overall GPA)?” The figure below demonstrates the distribution of answers.

The students mostly agree that online teaching has a positive impact on their academic standings (49% against 34%). 17% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree with the given statement.

Freshmen are less optimistic about the positive impact of online teaching than older students (40% – 41% against 61% – 23%).

Female students are more optimistic about the positive impact of online teaching (54% – 30%). Male respondents have 44% of positive answers and 38% of negative responses.

The difference between family-financed students and others is also significant. The first group has significantly more positive and less negative answers (51% against 32% for family-financed respondents, and 39% against 43% for other students).

On-campus students are less optimistic about the positive impact of online teaching than off-campus students (43% – 40% against 55% – 26%).

On-campus and off-campus students (43% against 23% for the first group, and 45% against 27% for the second one).

Comparing five groups based on students’ majors, we can see that the engineering majors students are the most optimistic group (53% against 28%). Two most pessimistic groups are  social science students (33% against 33%), and other majors students (38% against 38%).

The last question is “Based on your studying experience this semester, do you agree or disagree with the following statement: I expect that after this semester I will have a positive opinion about online teaching?” The results are below:

The students are more optimistic regarding having a positive opinion about online teaching after this semester: 44% are strongly agree or agree and 29% are strongly disagree or disagree.

Percentages of positive answers are mostly the same for freshmen and other students (43% and 44%). Whereas first-year students have slightly lower percentage of disagreement (28% for freshmen and 31% for others).

Relating to this question, female students are more optimistic than male students (56% against 20% for females and 34% against 35% for males).

Almost half of the non-family-financed students (48%) have a neutral opinion about online teaching in the future. Again, there is a notable distinction between responses of family-financed students and others. The family-financed students have more optimistic expectations (47% against 30%) comparing with the other students (29% against 24%).

40% of on-campus students have positive expectations and 27% of them have a negative opinion. Wherease 47% of off-campus respondents have a positive opinion and 30% of them have negative epectations.

Business-related majors students have the highest persentage of agreement (42%) and social science students have the lowest rate (33%). The same group of students (social science majors) have the highest rate of disagreement (44%) and respondents who did not choose their majors yet have the lowest persentage (10%).

These are the results of the second survey. The next, the last survey will be conducted in the end of the semester.

Weekly Journal. Week 9

This week I post the results of the second survey of my project. This survey is held in the middle of the semester.

There are 105 students who answered the survey questions. , Since the first survey had 204 respondents, unfortunately, there is a significant drop of the number of respondents.

The summary statistics of 105 respondents of the second survey is as follows.

Current classroom level:
Freshman (1st year) – 65
Sophomore (2nd year) – 24
Junior (3rd year) – 12
Senior (4th year) – 3
5th year (masters) – 1

Female – 46
Male – 59

The main source of financing for attending the University:
Parents and/or relatives – 83
Personal loan – 9
Government Sponsored /Free tuition – 3
Scholarship – 8
Self-financed (from own salary or savings) – 2

On campus – 55
Off campus in Blacksburg area – 40
In Virginia (not in Blacksburg area) – 9
In another country – 1

Engineering related – 50
Business related – 22
Social Science – 9
Others – 14
Undecided (N/A) – 10

The first question of interest is “Based on your studying experience this semester, if you had a choice between different types of courses, what class would you choose?” The answers are:
An in-person course – 43
A hybrid course – 28
An online course – 22
Any course, I’m indifferent – 11
N/A – 1

Below you can see a graph which indicates the percentage of dyfferent types of courses by different characteristics of respondents.

The second question is “Based on your studying experience this semester, what is your opinion about online teaching at Virginia Tech?” The results are:
My opinion is strongly positive – 17
My opinion is positive – 46
My opinion is neither positive nor negative – 13
My opinion is negative – 17
My opinion is strongly negative – 12

Here is a graph which shows the percentage of dyfferent answers (students who have their opinion) by different characteristics of respondents.

The next question is “Based on your studying experience this semester, do you agree or disagree with the following statement: I think that during this semester online teaching has a positive impact on my academic standing (overall GPA)?” The answers are:
Strongly agree – 15
Somewhat agree – 35
Neither agree nor disagree – 18
Somewhat disagree – 24
Strongly disagree – 11
I don’t know – 1
N/A – 1

Below there is a graph which indicates the percentage of answers by different characteristics of respondents.

And the last question is “Based on your studying experience this semester, do you agree or disagree with the following statement: I expect that after this semester I will have a positive opinion about online teaching?” Here are the results:
Strongly agree – 13
Somewhat agree – 32
Neither agree nor disagree – 29
Somewhat disagree – 18
Strongly disagree – 12
N/A – 1

You can see the graph which demonstrates the percentage of answers by different characteristics of respondents.

These are the results of the second survey. I will interprete them next week.

Technology and Innovation in Higher Education

In my post I present the infographic (which is pretty much self-explanatory) with top 6 digital transformation trends in education for 2018:

1. Personalized learning
2. Student-led learning
3. Gamification
4. Utilization of Cloud-Based Technology
5. Learning Data and Analytics
6. 1-to-1 Ratio Classrooms

In my opinion, these trends have a significant impact on higher education.

Blended learning personalizes lessons, allowing students to focus on discovery and to make their own decisions about direction and pace. The combination of technology and face-to-face interactions provides students with more ownership.

Adaptive learning allows students more freedom in designing their own educational paths.  Eggective adaptive learning tools can increase classroom skills and support student achievement.

It is not surprising that teachers often grow more comfortable with a topic after teaching others about it. Student-led learning was used by teachers in their classrooms for years. Nowadays student-led learning is mostly used with such modern tools as wireless presentation systems and mirroring devices.

Gamification in the classroom is the very useful tool which might be used in higher education too.  Gamification can motivate learners through  rewards  by providing opportunities to earn badges, level up, and fail in order to restart and try again. It also can encourage collaboration through team play.

Cloud-based technology is a great tool allowing students to avoid problems with lost files, missing resources, or lack of access.

By learning data from students, analytical technology can improve knowledge retention and learner engagement.

One-to-one (one computer per student) is also a necessary condition for effectiveness of higher education.

Source: www.screenbeam.com

Weekly Journal. Week 8

This week I finish my discusion about the key education policy points of the Republican candidate President Donald Trump and the Democratic nominee former Vice President Joe Biden.

Student Debt

Donald Trump plans to streamline the student-loan system into one income-driven repayment program, to cap loan payments at 12.5% of a borrower’s discretionary income, and to forgive federal student loans after 15 years of consistent payments.

Joe Biden proposes to eliminate payments or interest for borrowers making $25,000 or less per year, to set loan payments at 5% of a borrower’s discretionary income, and to forgive 100% of debt after 20 years of on-time payments.

My opinion. Sinse both candidates offer similar debt forgiveness plans and both of them would cap the amount students can borrow and have colleges share the risk of students defaulting on their loans, there is no big difference between two plans. Therefore I am neutral between candidates here.

College Affordability

Donald Trump plans reducing the federal role in education by spending less on financial aid programs, creating short-term postsecondary programs that lead to licenses, certifications, or other credentials in high-demand occupations, and reorganize the Office of Federal Student Aid (FSA), which distributes federal loans..

As president, Joe Biden would offer a free-college plan for families earning less than $125,000, provide two years of free community college or high-quality training programs, and create a grant program that boosts student success at community colleges..

My opinion. Whereas President Trump tries to cut federal student financial support, Joe Biden wants to make sure all students who are interested in a post-secondary education can afford it.  I also see higher education as a public good, the good that is made available to all members of a society. Therefore, my opinion is closer to Joe Biden’s point of view about college affordability.

Financial Aid

Donald Trump’s budget plan includes freezing the maximum Pell grant for the next decade, cutting $630 million from the federal work-study program, and eliminating programs like subsidized Stafford Loans, the Public Service Loan Forgiveness and Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs. He also supports consolidating GEAR UP and TRIO grant programs that benefit students from under resourced communities.

As president, Joe Biden would double the maximum value of Pell grants and increase access to the program. Additionally, he will help students pay for costs other than tuition at four-year institutions and pioritize the use of Federal Work-Study funds for job-related and public service roles.

In my opinion, the cuts that were proposed by the Trump administration to the student aid programs would disproportionately impact low-income students, while Biden’s education policy directly includes a plan to make higher education more affordable by increasing need-based financial aid. Thus, Joe Biden.

International Students

Donald Trump plans to block or dismantle the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, to discourage international students from countries with travel bans from attending U.S. universities, and to place temporary restrictions on foreign student work programs to help Americans land jobs during an economic recession.

Oppositely, Joe Biden proposes welcoming international students to help grow the economy and create jobs, enacting DACA as a permanent program, and rescinding Trump’s country-specific travel bans.

My opinion. I believe that international students have a positive effect on higher education. For this reason, I can conclude that my opinion is much closer to Joe Biden’s.


I explored 12 key education policy points of Donald Trump and Joe Biden by matching their plans and proposals with my personal opinion on these issues. The overall results are following:

In seven educational issues my opinion is closer to Joe Biden’s opinion and in five cases I am indifferent (neutral) between two candidates.

Very soon, November 3rd we will know the outcome of the presidential election and what is the vector of  development of higher education for the next years. For now, I would like to remind you the results of previous presidential elections in the USA (Soundtrack: the U.S. national anthem by the U.S. Navy Band):