Additional Blog Post

For my last blog post, I would like to go over the higher education system in Italy that I presented during class. In Italy, during high school, it’s very important for students to decide what they want to do when they’re older. This is because their selection will change what university pathway choose. It is very difficult to switch concentrations once you select your degree. After high school and depending on what they decide to study, the students will complete the 3+2 course or the single-cycle degree course. The 3+2 structure requires students to complete a three-year program which is equivalent to a bachelor’s degree. Then they have to complete a two-year program which is equivalent to a master’s degree. The single cycle degree programs are for any medicine law or veterinary programs. The program can vary from 5 to 6 years. Students are required to complete high school and have a high school diploma and pass the entrance exam to go to university. There are 76 public universities in Italy, and the majority of students attend these. The public universities are more competitive and have a higher quality of education. There are 23 private universities in Italy. They are a lower quality of education, less competitive, and you need connections and money to attend. The most popular degree programs in Italy are economics, area and cultural studies, architecture, international relations, fashion design, and business administration.

You can apply to graduate school after you’ve completed the 3+2 program. The Ph.D. program in Italy is extremely competitive. But if you are accepted you are paid like a job. If you have a public university degree the state gives you money to pay for your studies or you get a sponsor. You are not required to go to work, this is only required to teach and universities. You are required to do three years as a researcher at the University, then you can teach. There is also a public exam, and you have to publish research.

Future of the University Blog Post

I think access to higher education should be more available. Access to high education means a number of things, this could be by cost, physical accessibility, and availability of classes. At this point in time, some form of higher education is a necessity to be able to get a job anywhere. A high school diploma alone does not hold the same weight it did 20 years ago. Thus, young people are forced to pursue some form of higher education right after high school. The vast majority of students have only worked a minimum wage job and cannot financially afford college. So, they are forced into student loans, working 2-3 jobs, applying to hundreds of scholarships, or not attending. At my undergraduate university, I had a friend who got a job at the university as a janitor because as an employee you can attend classes for free. So, worked as a janitor for 6 years (took longer because he had to work full-time) until he obtained his BS in Aerospace Engineering (for free).

But, why is it this way? Why do we need to jump through hoops just to be able to survive? Next, physical accessibility needs to be improved across all forms of higher education. Disability services across campuses are often under-funded and not utilized to its potential. At some universities allocating the tools needed for students to succeed are at times extremely difficult. Lastly, the availability of classes often does not work with a working person’s schedule. People who are working through a degree often need to sacrifice the classes they want to take or their schedule.

Technology and Innovation in Higher Education Blog Post

“When we no longer need multimillion-dollar gymnasiums with climbing walls because we don’t need walls, it’s going to change higher education completely” (Bersett, 2015).

Before this assignment prompt, I have never heard of MOOCs before, so I was very interested in learning about it. MOOC (massive open online courses) are large online courses offered for free by professors mainly at Ivy League universities. MOOCs have become a distributive force because they offer free online courses to whoever wants to enroll.

MOOCs were first started in 2008, but the impact of these courses was felt in 2011 (Bersett, 2015). In 2013, 5% of universities offered some type of MOOC, and that percentage triples for universities who enrolled more than 15,000 students. Of that, a small percentage of universities are offering MOOCs for credit (Bersett, 2015). In 2011, 106,000 students signed up for an AI course taught by a Stanford professor (Bersett, 2015).

I read a few articles where Colleges stated they are often afraid of MOOCs because they allow people to pick any type of courses they want online and take them for free. In the last decade, online courses have become attractive because (1) you do not need to be there, (2) it conforms to a single person’s schedule, (3) you do not have to worry about being accepted into these elite and highly competitive universities, (4) student debt has risen disturbingly high. MOOCs have become a new revenue model for higher education. The fact that MOOCs are free and open is what differentiates them from Universities who rely on acceptance into the school and tuition fees. One point that I could not understand was that the grading system is unclear, and there is either no or extremely limited interaction with the professor.

It makes you question the choices you made. Why did I spend thousands of dollars for a traditional college education where I could have completed self-paced college courses that only rely on me having an active internet connection? I could substitute my monthly tuition bill for a monthly internet charge.

The infographic I decided to share maps out the four key MOOC players (Coursera, Khan, Udacity, and EDX).  Thrun created Udacity which is a for-profit MOOC and Princeton and Duke professors are teaching courses. Coursera was created by two Stanford professors and EDX is a non-profit MOOC founded by MIT and Harvard. MOOCs are also backed by Melinda and Bill Gates.

(Nigel, 2014)

Works Cited

Bersett, K. (2015, February 16). Illinois State University. Retrieved from Illinois State eyes future as online courses reshape higher ed:

Nigel, H. (2014, March 1). MICHAEL SANDBERG’S DATA VISUALIZATION BLOG. Retrieved from Infographic: Major Players in the MOOC Universe (Nigel Hawtin):

Open Access Blog Post

The open-access journal found in the Journal of Ergonomics. They are an international open-access journal that publishes research in health, automotive, ergonomics, and engineering disciplines. All the research publications are available online for free without restrictions or any subscriptions. All publications are peer-reviewed by subject matter experts in the field. An array of research publications is accepted such as methodology articles, review articles, commentaries, letters to the editors, case reports, and short communications. There are three experts that sit on the editorial board. The journals main contact is in Brussels, Belgium, but they have an office in Barcelona, Spain.

The goal of the journal is to create a course of scholarly research from research across the roll to increase accessibility to research to greater the global research community. Their mission is “to help accelerate the pace of discovery by offering solutions to international researchers and help them publish their work in the best journals” (Longdom, 2020). The journal does not position itself within the open access movement. The only description of open access is in a sentence of their mission statement. However, within their copyright information under the publication ethics, they mentioned that they follow Scholars Open Access publishing policies.

I think this journal provides important resources to many researchers across the globe. I feel that most journal publishers take advantage of their platform and make it extremely complicated to get access to research. To me, the hardest part of the research is trying to access research articles for the literature review. Often once you find an abstract that sounds interesting it takes another 45 minutes and 27 open tabs to figure out where you can download the entire article from.

Ethics Blog Post

I reviewed a case summary about a doctor who charged with the misconduct of research conducted at a children’s hospital. The investigators found the researcher guilty of falsifying and fabricated data that was published in papers (one paper) and submitted in a few grant applications (four grant applications). Specifically, they “fabricated image data for enterobacterial infection-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury in a neonatal murine model to falsely represent results using images from unrelated experiments.” (The Office of Research Integrity, 2020).

As a result of this verdict, a settlement agreement was agreed to by the plaintiff and the defendant. This settlement included supervision of all research for four years, and the respondent must a plan of supervision for ORI approval prior to any participation in any proposed PHS supported the research. The supervision includes a committee for two to three faculty members who will provide oversight and guidance on all research (this committee excludes the respondent’s supervisor or any collaborators). The committee will be required to review all primary data ever quarter and submit a report to the ORI. Additionally, the committee will review all PHS applications and reports for any PHS sponsored research. The respondent must also provide ORI with a certification that the data presented in the reports is supported by the research record (The Office of Research Integrity, 2020).

Reflecting on this case, I feel that the ORI was not explicit enough in their case summary. For example, there are no guidelines listed on how the committee members are selected. They only state that the respondent’s supervisor or research collaborators cannot be the committee. But, there are no regulations on how many years of experience they have, if they are in the same place of work, or if they have any prior misconduct against them. Additionally, the settlement only requires the respondent to have an oversight committee, submit the work for review, and pledge their work is supported by the research record. However, there were no requirements for the respondent to work on themselves or any type of ethics course. Yes, it is important for the respondents to work to get reviewed. But, if they do not get help working on the reasons why they committed the misconduct from the beginning, I do not think the review of the work is enough. I personally think it is important to provide people with the opportunities to learn about their mistakes and educate themselves on why it is not acceptable and how to avoid repeating their mistakes again.

Works Cited

The Office of Research Integrity. (2020, July 7). Case Summary: Nemani, Prasadarao.

Mission Statements Blog Post

Personal Reflection: Option 2

Mission statements from NOVA Southeastern University (Florida), and the University of San Diego (California) were selected. I selected these two mission statements because both statements outline their Mission, Core Values, and Community, as well as other similar components.

One reflection point is both mission statements discuss diversity but do not mention anything about inclusion. Diversity refers to the traits and characteristics that make people unique while inclusion refers to the behaviors and social norms that ensure people feel welcome (reference: Diversity often fails when people of different backgrounds are no included in the environment. After people from different backgrounds are accepted into a place, they then become alienated, and over time the diversity falls apart. Creating inclusive environments for all types of people, provides acceptance, security, and a community for people. Inclusive environments are not only created through organizations, and events that groups of people create, but how we conduct ourselves, individual, as well. For example, avoid using labels, ensure accessibility is available to all, asses need prior to people’s arrivals, and positively acknowledge differences.

Another reflection point for both mission statements is there are no action-based statements. Throughout all sections of the mission statement, both universities make declarations about what their school strives for. These declarations discuss what these universities hope to achieve and the pillars they stand by. But, nowhere are any actionable items. Even throughout the website, there are no actionable statements of what they will do to achieve each of their core values.


NOVA Southeastern University

Vision, Mission, And Core Values – In pursuit of defining the Nova Southeastern University of tomorrow, President George L. Hanbury II, Ph.D. collaborated with faculty members, deans, staff, alumni, student leaders, community members, and the board of trustees to create a single-shared vision based on eight core values. The Vision 2020, Mission, and Core Values will collectively guide NSU into the future.

Vision 2020 – By 2020, through excellence and innovations in teaching, research, service, and learning, Nova Southeastern University will be recognized by accrediting agencies, the academic community, and the general public as a premier, private, not-for-profit university of quality and distinction that engages all students and produces alumni who serve with integrity in their lives, fields of study, and resulting careers.

Mission – The Mission of Nova Southeastern University, a private, not-for-profit institution, is to offer a diverse array of innovative academic programs that complement on-campus educational opportunities and resources with accessible distance learning programs to foster academic excellence, intellectual inquiry, leadership, research, and commitment to the community through engagement of students and faculty members in a dynamic, life-long learning environment.

Core Values

Academic Excellence – Academic excellence is the provision of the highest quality educational and learning experiences made possible by academically and professionally qualified and skilled instructional faculty and staff, opportunities for contextual learning, state-of-the-art facilities, beautiful surroundings, and effective resources necessary to support learning at the highest level. Additionally, academic excellence reflects the successful relationship between engaged learners and outstanding instructional faculty and staff.

Student-Centered – Students are the focus of institutional priorities, resource decisions, and planning. We are stewards of student needs and advocates for student academic success and professional development.

Integrity – Integrity involves honesty and fairness, consistency in instruction, ethics of scholarship, freedom of inquiry, and open and truthful engagement with the community through effective communication, policies, and practices.

Innovation – Innovation is the creative and deliberate application of teaching, research, scholarship, and service for effective education, and the development of useful products or processes providing a value-added to the community.

Opportunity – Opportunity fosters the possibility for anyone associated with NSU to acquire an education or an educational experience through creative, yet sound pedagogical programs.

Scholarship/Research – Research and scholarship products are disseminated and evaluated through intellectual discourse, application, assessment, and other mechanisms of the relevant peer community.

Diversity – Diversity includes, but is not limited to, race, ethnicity, culture, religion, philosophy, gender, physical, socioeconomic status, age, and sexual orientation. Differences in views, interpretations, and reactions derived from diversity are important. Diversity enriches a learning environment focused on preparing individuals to live and work in a global society.

Community – NSU is a community of faculty staff, students, and alumni that share a common identity and purpose who engages with the university’s external community through diverse services, clinical programs, and community-based research and resources. Our community extends into professional, intellectual, as well as geographical domains that both support and are the focus of our educational mission.


University of San Diego

Vision – The University of San Diego sets the standard for an engaged, contemporary Catholic university where innovative changemakers confront humanity’s urgent challenges.

Mission – The University of San Diego is a Roman Catholic institution committed to advancing academic excellence, expanding liberal and professional knowledge, creating a diverse and inclusive community, and preparing leaders who are dedicated to ethical conduct and compassionate service.

The Core Values – The University of San Diego expresses its Catholic identity by witnessing and probing the Christian message as proclaimed by the Roman Catholic Church. The university promotes the intellectual exploration of religious faith, recruits persons and develops programs supporting the university’s mission, and cultivates an active faith community. It is committed to the dignity and fullest development of the whole person. The Catholic tradition of the university provides the foundation upon which the core values listed below support the mission.

Academic Excellence – The University pursues academic excellence in its teaching, learning, and research to serve the local, national and international communities. The University possesses the institutional autonomy and integrity necessary to uphold the highest standards of intellectual inquiry and academic freedom.

Knowledge – The University advances intellectual development; promotes democratic and global citizenship; cultivates an appreciation for beauty, goodness, and truth; and provides opportunities for the physical, spiritual, emotional, social, and cultural development of students. The University provides professional education grounded in these foundations of liberal learning while preparing students to understand complex issues and express informed opinions with courage and conviction.

Community – The University is committed to creating a welcoming, inclusive, and collaborative community accentuated by a spirit of freedom and charity and marked by protection of the rights and dignity of the individual. The University values students, faculty, and staff from different backgrounds and faith traditions and is committed to creating an atmosphere of trust, safety, and respect in a community characterized by a rich diversity of people and ideas.

Ethical Conduct – The University provides a values-based education that informs the development of ethical judgment and behavior. The University seeks to develop ethical and responsible leaders committed to the common good who are empowered to engage a diverse and changing world.

Compassionate Service – The University embraces the Catholic moral and social tradition by its commitment to serve with compassion, to foster peace, and to work for justice. The University regards peace as inseparable from justice and advances education, scholarship, and service to fashion a more humane world.