There are considerable differences between a Ph.D. degree in Europe vs. getting a Ph.D. degree in the US. Here, I have very concisely summarized some key differences in terms of qualifications, required time, thesis topic, teaching requirement, coursework, funding and salary.
First, unlike the US, there is no such thing as a direct Ph.D. in Europe and having a Master’s is a “must” before doing a Ph.D.
– Required time
European Ph.D. programs are generally shorter than those in the US. In Europe, doing a Ph.D. usually takes three to four years. For instance, Ph.D.s in France, Norway, the UK, and Germany take three years to complete. In contrast, it is much longer in the US and it may easily take up to five or six years (or sometimes even more!).
– Thesis topic
Ph.D. candidates in Europe must choose their thesis topic and supervisor during the application process. On the contrary, In the US, candidates apply to a department’s Ph.D. program, rather than a specific Ph.D. project and usually, students do not decide on their thesis topic until their second or third year.
– Teaching requirement:
In Europe, Ph.D. candidates occasionally have the opportunity to teach although it is not a requirement in many countries. In the US, Ph.D. candidates are often required to teach undergraduates (often as teaching assistants for a large lecture class) as part of their funding packages.
Many European Ph.D. programs require students to do little to no coursework. On the other hand, American Ph.D. programs, regardless of the field, require students to take two to three years of courses and seminars across the discipline.
– Funding and salary
In several European countries, Ph.D. students are seen as employees and have work contracts. Also, tuition fees are drastically lower in many European countries compared to the United States. Funding at American universities varies widely, as do tuition fees. Private universities have higher tuition than public state schools. The top schools offer five-year funding packages which cover tuition and fees and provide a monthly stipend. At other schools, students must compete for fellowships at the university, state, or national level to fund their PhDs. The department might also offer teaching assistantships or research assistantships which pay students a salary and usually partial tuition coverage.