Quality has been and will continue to be an important aspect of higher education. An important part ensuring high quality is to have proper criteria and tools to assess it. In the past 20 years, higher education quality-assurance schemes have been implemented in many countries throughout the world. Yet, in the past decade, a significant increase in the transfer of students and scholars between different countries, highly drove the requirement for mutual recognition and trust, and thus, the ways to compare and assess qualifications earned by students and scholars in international level. In this regard, for example, the Bologna process was established in Europe to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher education qualifications in the region. However, when we go to the international level, the issue of quality assurance is still problematic in many aspects. One of these aspects is that quality assurance is a highly dynamic process which permanently evolves and is also highly influenced by political conditions. Also, the emergence of new systems like MOOCs (massive open online courses) requires update and redefinition of the standards for educational systems quality assurance. In this regard, some have even argued the possibility to define trends or directions of change for quality assurance processes due to their almost random behavior.
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Rosa, M.J. and A. Amaral, Quality assurance in higher education: Contemporary debates. 2014: Springer.