“Banking” System in Education: a reflection of Freire’s article

After reading Paulo Freire’s articles, I could have a chance to think about education’s foundation meaning. Learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that exists and teaching will be a process of stimulating learning. Therefore, authentic education should get to interact between teaching and learning, which should not be a one-way delivering or receiving activity for the knowledge and information. I believe the interaction with human beings in the class can be a process in the real world to finding learning’s values and joys.

Freire asserted that the more completely students accept the passive role imposed on them, the more they tend to adapt to the world as it is in the “Banking” concept of education. Our world keeps changing. We should improve and could develop ourselves without the other’s teaching someday. Students will face difficulties in the passive education system when they meet the new problems out of the class. Critical thinking and students’ efforts for learning activities will be the power when they need to solve real problems out of the box.

Freire’s idea for authentic liberation in education is that we move forward to true communication between teachers and students as human beings. Students should have authentic liberation in the education system. Authentic liberation required a disciplinary approach to find joy in a demanding and challenging learning process. Teachers will require more commitment and love to their teaching and students.

I believe the essential factor for everything is to start from communication. The small talks, dialog, conversations will lead to smooth interaction between teachers and students, and more interaction will bring effective teaching and learning. The teaching and learning process is not only one role of teachers and students. Teachers learn a lot from students and teaching processes. Students will teach the other students and learn how to interact and teach the others in their future.


Assignment and Rubric for Grading

My feeling on the assignment grading system is mixed. I do support Alfie Kohn’s opinion from his article ‘The Case Against Grades‘ that grades create a preference for the easiest possible task. Simultaneously, I agree with Marilyn Lombardi’s argument from the article ‘Making the Grade: The Role of Assessment in Authentic Learning‘ that students will engage with subject matter based on their expectations about their achievement.

I could thoroughly understand both arguments since I am learning as a student and I am grading every week as a teaching assistant of the class. As a current student, I use to focus on the assigned tasks to solve them as my study goal and direction. Sometimes it may make me feel frustrated with my grading and feel unproductivity for learning due to the grading. On the other hand, as a TA of one of the undergraduate classes, I cannot assure that they will be more engaged if there are no assignments. Some students might not try to seriously understand what they are learning if there is no assigned grade. When the students got a good grade after their diligent works, the grading will give them confidence and achievement to learn. Those experiences would be a positive impact on students to move forward to learn.

There are many types of grading and rubrics in the class of my field (architectural and construction engineering). There are technical drawing, estimation, essay, scorecard, peer evaluation, team project, class assignment, straightforward answers, etc., as the method of assignments. I could see various types of assignments, and almost all assignments provide the grading rubric. If we don’t have a rubric, how can I grade them consistently? I believe suggesting the rubric is one of the critical tools to lead students to get to know the directions. The rubric’s benefit is students get to focus on their approaches to mitigate the assignment’s purpose. Sometimes the students still distract their study goal even if there are explained and suggested in the rubrics. Therefore, we should consider that too strict or too redundant rubrics could hinder students from thinking creatively or broadly.

In contrast, the grading system’s disadvantage is that the students might not develop their thinking deeply because of the assignment requirements that are already fixed items, even though they can do better. Sometimes I believe the students would do much better by themselves if there is no limitation about the grading system, including some requirements.

In conclusion, to consist an effective learning process, instructors should critically consider the balance of assessment and grading system when they program the course. I believe that the grading system should not be intimidating and frustrating to the student’s motivations. The grading assessment should be the tool that encourages students to learn and lead the right direction to focus on the learning outcome and purpose.


Case-Based Learning and Various Solutions

When I think about case-based learning and problem-based learning, I had come to mind the course Law in Construction that I took when I studied for my master’s degree in Construction Management at the University of Washington. I think, generally, few engineering departments have the law-related class that is required for their degree. I also was not familiar with the terms related to law case studies before taking that class.

However, I think that knowledge about the law is crucial for engineers because there are many legal matters related to technology or business in the real world, regardless of any particular field. In the construction law class, we reviewed the cases dealt with in the court in the past. And then, we estimated the judgments ourselves and discussed the judgments. At first, it was difficult because of a lack of knowledge of the law and understanding of the jargon. However, through many case studies, I could understand essential concepts.

I think case-based learning more effectively provides long-time memory to the students and attracts students’ interest compared to obtaining theories or concepts by reading textbooks.

I could learn more multidisciplinary thinking about the complexity of the problems through case-based studies. For example, if someone draws an image on the wall, the wall painting could be art. And it also could be illegal graffiti depends on the case circumstances. In another case, the building owner could not remove the wall art or dismantle the wall structure without the artist’s agreement. The wall art is not the building owner’s property if there is no consent or contract with the artist. On the other hand, if the graffiti was illegal, the building owner’s action will not affect the law. Like these examples, legal judgments or solutions would differ with the case circumstances even if the painting on the wall is identical.

The merit of case-based or problem-based learning is there is no one answer fixed. The solution could change depends on the circumstances. These kinds of thinking will develop our problem-solving abilities and provide an opportunity for thinking broadly.

There would be many methodologies to offer case-based learning and problem-based teaching to solve the problems with various perspectives in pedagogy. It will provide students a chance to think about and to find solutions in their own ways. Sometimes, the solution could have controversial, or the solution might not be perfect. And it is the real world. Case-based and problem-based learning is closed to our real-world’s circumstances. By thinking about the complexity and approaches of the diverse aspect which could not think about before, students will expand their solving abilities and find their own sense of values.

[1] Image Link: https://problemsolvee.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/case-law.jpg

The Inclusive Environment in a Classroom

When I thought about what inclusive pedagogy is, the word “welcome” popped up in my mind. And I would remind the welcome’s meaning by Merriam-Webster [1] has “received gladly into one’s presence or companionship; received with gladness or delight especially in response to a need; willingly permitted or admitted.” If I feel welcomed by people with different cultural backgrounds and experiences, I will more comfortably and confidently enjoy my learning in that environment. Like this, when students feel optimistic about the place, and they think others welcome them, they will be better learners.

To make an inclusive classroom, the teacher’s effort to learn about students’ backgrounds and understanding will be the most supportive factors. Based on the teacher’s support, our curriculums and systematic education system should be conducive to the children of minorities and under vulnerable conditions.
However, we can not establish inclusive pedagogy with only the teacher’s efforts. The entire people who are involved in the group shall create and build that ambiance for learning together.

“Inclusive pedagogy is a teaching method in which instructors and classmates work together to create a supportive environment that gives each student equal access to learning.” [2]

When we meet any new place or social group, we commonly think that we have to adapt to their environments and changed our behavior or values, for included those organizations. However, I believe inclusive pedagogy’s meaning is a little different. We can support each other, take others’ diversity, and accept as they are through education.

I believe the practice for an inclusive mind starts from the care and acceptance of students’ concerns or immaturity of what they have due to personal reasons.
For young children, their school classroom would mean more than a place to learn knowledge. The classroom is where they share their friendship, learn relationships with others, and grow as social citizens. The classroom space and the persons who meet daily in the classroom are a considerable and crucial portion during the individual’s childhood life. If they could receive the feeling of welcome, safety, acceptance, respect for others’ values from the classroom, they will show the same behaviors in the broaden world to others as what they learned in the school.

[1] https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/welcome
[2] https://commons.georgetown.edu/teaching/design/inclusive-pedagogy/
[3] https://www.stickerforwall.com/16850-thickbox/vinyl-welcome-languages.jpg


Teaching and Learning about Diversity

Image [1] Crayons


When I was in kindergarten more than 20 years ago, I liked drawings and had crayons a lot. However, I would have had always drawn the person’s face as the same color. One of the color names was ‘skin color,’ which was written on the wrapped paper in Korean as ‘살색.’ It represented a bright yellowish-pinky color.  Almost all Korean have a similar shade of skin color since they include identical ethnic characteristics. So, the name might be designated for their conveniences to teach and to induce selecting that color when children draw a person.

However, people began to criticize the name of the color as the reason the name could give a race discriminated perspective to the children. I don’t remember exactly when the color name was changed, yet I believe it was a good example for reflecting our diversity and inclusion. And we don’t have any of the named ‘Skin color’ crayons anymore. It had been changed ‘Apricot color.’ I could realize that I had not had doubts about the name of crayon color when I was a child, though I might be too young to think about that color name issue when I used crayons. Generally, the young children quickly and easily absorb the existing culture and teacher’s words without any doubt or resistance.


Image [2] Apricot color


Of course, I am not saying the all crayon color names are wrong or should be changed. We might need and learn color names designated for the convenience of color recognition and identification. However, at the same time, we should accept and teach that the expression of color names could differ in some cultures or environments.

I believe some crayon color names will be differently interpreted according to the natural circumstances and cultural ambiances. And the different names all could be the appropriate name if they are not reflected in any bias, negative view for minority, or discrimination in their societies, like ‘skin color’ name.

Like making a change of color name, I believe our education system should accept and teach the diversity of cultural and environmental background for children and students. For the children, the purpose of learning should be not only going to school and taking a test, but it would also be every new experiencing and finding their values and answers. We have to teach and learn how to accept and recognize others’ diverse perspectives and approaches to solve problems.

Teaching diversity does not provide one static and correct answer but offers opportunities for understanding broad answers with creativity and curiosity. The static knowledge delivery and stereotypes cannot lead to student’s diverse creativity and innovation. Therefore, I believe it is critical that teaching children to learn and embrace various approaches and solutions without biased perspectives through education.


Reference Images:

[1] https://radiofreehowland.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/crayons-fgg.jpg

[2] https://img.buzzfeed.com/buzzfeed-static/static/2016-07/14/14/enhanced/buzzfeed-prod-fastlane02/enhanced-26304-1468519453-1.png


Diversity and Name in College

Everyone has a name. We give names when we want to provide the meaning and keep the memory even it is not a person. Therefore, naming is not just assigned to call but kept the meaning of something for people.

During my reading of Virginia Tech’s article on August 13, 2020 [1], I could remind it of the famous proverb in Korea. There is a saying that “When die, tigers leave their leathers and people leave their names.” Virginia Tech has changed two building names as African American’s. In the article, “The Hoge name represents the broad array of people who, in so many roles throughout the years and untold ways, provided essential support for our first Black students,” said President Sands. “By naming this residence hall for William and Janie Hoge, it also acknowledges the many important connections between campus and community.

Even though they already pass away before naming the building, the meaning and spirit of what they did can be remained and delivered by the buildings’ name. For instance, if there was no change in the name and there are no decisions of University committees, I might not think of the meaning of black students’ life and challenges in the past at Virginia Tech. And I would not care about the building’s name except when I find the buildings. I believe the change in the building’s name allows us to change awareness and accept diversity a little more widely.

As the other example of the importance of a name, I once watched one experimental documentary before. There was a surprising outcome. The experiment was to submit a resume and see the result of the resume review pass – the two resumes were seme except for the name. One was submitted in an ordinary white man’s name, and the other resume was submitted in an ordinary Black man’s name. Even though the other contents were identical, the pass rate was different depending on their names. Through this example, we can see how much our names are important and impact our lives even while we did not realize. Therefore, we should realize and consciously change our bias to accept various or minority groups’ names without discrimination.

This year 2020 especially, we had many social issues ever, including “Black Live Matters.” Diversity is not meaning or considering only African Americans’ rights or supports. Especially in education, we should learn and teach various perceptions and sources. It should be considered and established different types of supports according to their needs, such as ethnic culture, body conditions, race, religion, etc. The acceptance of various names could be a small start for the change.


[1] Board of Visitors Executive Committee approves new names for residence halls.

Future of The University

The University will continually be and should be changed in the future. I have thought of a transition in the three aspects that need to change for the college’s future.

I consider the biggest problem we face when attending college would be a financial issue for many students. Even though people don’t reveal on surfaces, many college students worry about the tuition budget. I could watch on the news that every year the tuition burden and debt are getting increased. The college’s tuition is one of the critical issues in society and political aspects as well. In the U.S., student loans are already a significant burden for many Americans’ house budget. According to the Federal Reserve, the national student loan debt reached $1.6 trillion in June 2019, which also reports that in 2018, 2 in 10 of those who took on education debt and still owe money are behind on their payments [1]. Higher education should provide an opportunity for getting a job and a better life as well. However, with the tuition debt and burden of finances after graduation, they might lose opportunities to pursue their dream and career due to debt problems. Therefore, the college and government should find a solution to the tuition burden for future higher education.

Also, in the value of the college’s academic programs, the current education system should change more interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary. Some industries are doing and growing interdisciplinary tasks faster than academia. I believe that higher education should lead innovative sectors and commit to our society more actively. Therefore, academia has to communicate with more various methods and fields over conventional boundaries. Employers are saying that college degrees could not ensure the ability to carry out employee’s work. Also, students are frequently studying additional courses outside of colleges for taking a job after graduation. Students should have more opportunities to learn multidisciplinary and advanced approaches that they can use for their jobs and cutting-edge careers. The college should change without gaps in the industry’s speed and change to be implementing students’ skills and knowledge in the real world.

Lastly, the pandemic sparks the digital learning system and adopting technology in higher education. We should consider that the balance of traditional teaching and learning through the effective way of adapting technologies. Not only for focusing on the growing the advanced technologies but also the quality and equity of the offer and access should be established at the same time. The method of teaching and collaboration beyond the limited place and time could lead more advanced academic system. The open sources and broaden communication between globalized researchers will become the basis for the college’s future.



[1] See 10 Years of Average Total Student Loan Debt

[2] What Will Higher Education Look Like 5, 10, or 20 Years from Now?

[3] What Higher Ed Has Learned from Covid-19 So Far


MOOCs in Higher Education

According to the development of technology, the education system is significantly changing in innovative ways. Teaching in the online space can help overcome geosocial and cultural divides and significantly increase educational and societal impact. For example, online courses and simulation-based learning can develop social and academic competencies in students without the restriction of location and time.

MOOCs(Massive Open Online Courses) are Internet-based teaching programs designed to handle thousands of students simultaneously, in part using the tactics of social-networking websites. To supplement video lectures, much of the learning comes from online comments, questions, and discussions. Participants even mark one another’s tests. Compared to traditional face-to-face education, however, the professor cannot individually attend to each student’s request or questions. This is one of the disadvantages of a MOOC compared to traditional education, which usually has a substantially lower number of students in the in-person classes. Therefore, MOOCs represent another mode of teaching, not a substitute for traditional face-to-face programs. So, the disruptive power of MOOCs does not mean that traditional teaching would cease in the foreseeable future. As such MOOCs do not yet meet the perfect conditions of disruptive technology that will replace old technology. I believe MOOCs cannot represent substitutes for whole traditional education at least under higher education so far.




In terms of the development and growth rate of online education, due to the ongoing pandemic and unexpected social distancing, online education has increased dramatically in 2020, which is much faster than we expected. According to the article (By the numbers: MOOCs During the Pandemic), pre-pandemic, technology-related subjects were popular in the entire top 10 being career-focused. Due to the pandemic, there is a spike in interest in soft skills and general interest topics. The ongoing changing and rapid development of information technologies and new media will further and distinctively change higher education program design as well as the teaching and learning environments of the future.

By the Numbers: MOOCs During the Pandemic
MOOCs Transform Higher Education and Science
MOOCs See Exponential Growth During Covid19 Pandemic


Open Access

What Is Open Access?

Open access journals have lots of benefits for the public and researchers. Researchers can exposure their findings more and can influence society. Researchers in developing countries can access the internet, and a more varied level of the public can have a chance to access without a fee. On the other hand, there is some side effect on open access, as the area of open access journals is growing, the Predatory Publishing is increasing as well. (What is a predatory publisher?) The predatory publishers have their goal of making money from publishing fees. They fail to follow accepted standards or best practices of scholarly publishing. Using the predatory publishing open access could occur terrible results not only for losing the money but also for losing the researcher’s valuable findings. We can find the potential predatory journals and publishers in the BEALL’s LIST (https://beallslist.net/). Even though there are many reputational open access journals, at the same time, the researchers should check the predatory publishers before their publication or references to avoid the downside of open access.  

Open Access in My Research Area

In my research and interest field, ‘Automation in Construction’ is one of the open access journals for finding my literature reviews. This journal contains all aspects pertaining to the use of Information Technologies in Design & Engineering, Construction Technology, Maintenance & Management areas. I can find the review borders and their profiles on their website. I believe this open-access journal is well organized and developed with a reputation. Also, this journal is supported by several institutes and organizations as followings:

– Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe)

– International Association for Automation and Robotics in Construction (IAARC)

– International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (C.I.B.)


Impacts of Open Access

This journal and my research are directly related the Information Technologies. The movement of open access in every academic field is not avoidable in the future. The scope and amount of publications by the digital and open information data will increase continuously. Also, the negative impacts and falsifications cannot be ignored. Therefore, more strict standards and purviews are required for open access journals, and the researchers have to make critical decisions before submitting their valuable papers to open access.

Ethics of Researchers

Research misconduct means not only including for intended purpose but also recklessly falsifying data without experimental or scientific data. I can see several cases of research misconducts, reported by The Office of Research Integrity (ORI), have been in medical or experimental fields. I believe the reason for misconduct is that it is easy to find the result of what they want. Generally, research would be challenging, demanding, and having tremendous tasks should be done until finding meaningful data.

The first goal for the study could be finding a result to prove our study. Therefore, meaningful and positive results are significant for researchers. But, we researchers should not miss our values and missions for research. We should not forget the essential values and minds why we are doing and what we are doing. One of the foundation reasons for research is that we hope our study could be valuable and useful for our society and people.

Fabricated and falsifying research is not only meaningless but also could be at risk to sometimes in various ways. Misleading information and data could be more harmful than physical hazards factors.  In terms of this, the researcher’s ethics and values are important for everyone.

In the ‘Case Summary: Tataroglu, Ozgur’ of the ORI website, the researcher did not agree or disagree about the investigation outcomes. I believe that the researcher absolutely would not intend the misconduct or fabrication of data at the beginning of the research, and would not expect the consequence of what he/she is under the situation after the wrong decisions. But the occurrence of the misconduct of research will impact their future study, and those future research data will be evaluated under investigation during a specific period. In this case summary, the researcher will be under investigation for three years from the misconduct. Even though the official period will be finished, the dishonor of ethics could remain during their whole research activities.