Changes in English Agriculture

Before the Bills of Enclosure were passed by Parliament, agriculture in England existed in an “openfield system.” Under this system, even the poorest individuals were invested in the land that they worked. Farmers acquired small plots of land by purchase, by marriage, or by inheritance: though, everyone was permitted equal access to the common land, … Continue reading Changes in English Agriculture

Comment on Revised Research Paper: Horseshoes by rbouldin

Hey, Lauren! This is a great paper, thank you for sharing! While I was reading I was wondering why exactly hoof protection became a necessity for domestic horses, when wild horses seem to get on just fine with their natural hooves. So I did a bit of research and the answer is actually quite interesting! Wild horses travel up to fifty miles daily for food, which causes their hooves to be worn into a thicker and harder state in dry climates (almost like how humans develop calluses). Since domesticated horses do not travel nearly as far and since they may be relocated to wet climates, their hooves often do not undergo natural hardening, making them vulnerable to damage under laborious conditions. So horseshoes really do draw a pretty direct comparison to actual shoes in protecting horses’ feet from damage and soreness!

Pottery in Antiquity

In his article “Pottery in Antiquity,” Cristian Violatti examines why pottery was so widespread among different cultures, the techniques used to create early pottery, and what the complexity of those techniques suggests for societies at the time. Pottery was not invented at one location and then spread to other cultures; rather, it was discovered by … Continue reading Pottery in Antiquity

Cardwell “Printing Press”

In the excerpt on printing from D.S.L. Cardwell’s “Turning Points in Western Technology: A Study of Technology, Science and History,” Cardwell describes how the process of publishing books was revolutionized by the printing press. Before the idea for a printing press could come about, two very important technologies had to be invented: namely paper and … Continue reading Cardwell “Printing Press”