Through his article, Langer discusses how industrialization has impacted society as a whole. Industrialization is not the sole cause for the issues within England, but instead a piece of the complex puzzle that came together around that time. Large populations living in poverty combining with the rapid population growth created a system that was designed to fail.
With many more people entering the workforce and many more factory jobs being created, it would seem like a mutually beneficial experience. Despite this, industrialization ended up doing the opposite. The housing standards were not prepared for the influx of people and living conditions decreased while cost of living increased. This left little money for material goods unless the hours worked were grueling, even then they had no time to buy these goods. At the same time, food prices increased making it so individuals would spend over half of their incomes on the food needed to sustain their most basic needs. Due to the influx of workers needed and income needed to sustain life, women and children entered the workforce. Factory conditions were deplorable yet were a necessary part of life during this time.