Category Archives: Assignment Sequence 2

Assignment Sequence 2 – Joey Dance


     In the article I read about relationships, the author talks about the main issues in relationships, which is keeping the romance alive with your partner. Really hearing him talk about this is know surprise, what is a relationship without romance? I mean of course you need to be best friends with your partner, but romance is what keeps the relationships strong. Some suggestions that the author talks about to keep the romance is making sure to still look good for your partner. If you don’t care about how you look around them your partner will just think that you just don’t care about them anymore. By looking nice for your partner you will create a better romantic life with your partner. The author also mentioned taking your partner out and by out I mean take him or her out on a date every now and then, being around your family all the time makes for very little alone time with your partner and that alone time means a lot to keep the communication good between your partner. It doesn’t even have to be that expensive, just make sure you both get out of the house and away from other family members. The last thing that the author talks about is always making your partner laugh. Laughing is a very big part in the relationship, by making your partner laugh it causes you both to connect on a much better level, rather than being serious all the time. All of these are good points that the author brings to attention. I also think surprising your partner at work or maybe just with a presents makes the relationship even better, everyone like presents and everyone loves to be surprised by someone they love. It was easy for me to choose to talk about this article because I am in a very good and healthy relationship.


     After reading the authors views on how to fix relationships it got me thinking of some suggestions that I feel could help benefit a relationship from failing. The three ones the author mentioned where definitely big. But some people could also argue those suggestions the author said, like when he mentioned going out on dates. What if they don’t have the money to go out to a restaurant? The author could argue that he also stated that you and your partner really need to just get out of the house. But then someone could argue that the way there schedule is they don’t have the time, to me I think people just make up way to many excuses when they could stop with all the excuses and just change up there schedule to spend time with your partner. He also mentions making your partner laugh to keep the romance alive. People could argue that its hard to be cheerful when you have to work all the time, really you should always be cheerful when you get to be with your partner. You should always want to make your partner happy and get them to laugh. The other thing the author mentions is looking good for your man or women, there really should be no excuse to not look good for your partner, your never to tired to look good for the person you love. Really any suggestions anyone tells a couple or any suggestions a couple reads about could be argued, but all and all it comes down to actually trying out the suggestions the couple gets and not making up excuses not to try them. To me if you really love your partner you should be willing to do anything to fix the relationship if it is going down the wrong path.


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Assignment Sequence 2 A/B

Assignment Sequence II A/B: Research Gaps and Research Questions

Part 1: The Conversation

  1. The main argument of the first article was that although the U.S. is the country with the best representation of women in government, men clearly hold more powerful and prominent positions in the formal institutions of government (governor, representative, senator), as opposed to the informal positions (grassroots actions, interest groups).
  2. The main argument of the second article was that identity matters in government representation, and women are thus underrepresented – as well as other races and sexual orientations.
  3. The main argument of the third article was that occurrences throughout the course of history such as wars, social movements, and the economy have developed opposite gender roles differently over time to what they are today.
  4. The main argument of the fourth article was that politicians and academic figures tend to disregard gender representation in politics, resulting in the under representation of women and over representation of men in government.
  5. The main point of the fifth article was to identify how men and women have differing political policy preferences, and men alter their policy preferences quicker than women do, which could be a potential reason for why women are under represented in government: because they are less likely to change policy successfully since they are more likely to miss a chance to voice their opinions in the formal institutions of government and politics than men are.
  6. The main point of the sixth article was to identify how not only are women in minority races under represented in government and politics, but women as a gender altogether are under represented.

Although the six articles all argue that women are under represented in terms of the role gender has in U.S. government and politics, they all take a different approach in addressing this idea.  This would cause disagreements among the authors about what is the main cause of women’s under representation in government.  Ritter, the author of the third article, would disagree with Waylen, the author of the fourth article, because the former believes history has dictated gender roles in government, while the latter believes that it is the fault of politicians and academics for simply ignoring the misrepresentation of women.  The former would also question how politicians and academics would have that type of control over government institutions if it were not caused by historical events; while the latter would argue that men typically have always had more power and control than women altogether, which is not a result of history, but rather an ongoing cultural matter.  Both Ritter and Waylen would disagree with Kellstedt, the author of the fifth article, who believes the primary cause of the under representation of women is their lack of ability to react to policy change fast enough.  Ritter and Waylen would wonder how that can factually be supported, and then question whether a causal relationship actually exists; and Kellstedt would try to find plausible data to prove his point.

The other three articles did not dig as deep as the previously discussed ones, however they still had somewhat different approaches to uncovering why women are under represented in U.S. government and politics.  Warnke, the author of article two, would insist that woman are just one piece of the puzzle, as all minority groups are under represented.  Paxton, an author of article one, would disagree with article two because women, based on their proportionate size as a gender compared to other minorities, are the most underrepresented group in the formal institutions of U.S. government and politics.  The authors of article six would disagree with the argument of article one, and would support Warnke in that all minorities are equally misrepresented in governmental institutions in the U.S.

The six sources all have one common ground: they argue that women are under represented in U.S. government and politics.  Whether based on institutional roles, history, racial diversity, or reaction to change, the articles ultimately come to the conclusion that women are under represented for multiple reasons – some of which seem more plausible than others.


Part 2: Finding the Gap(s) in the Scholarly Conversation

I disagree with the main argument of the fifth article by Paul Kellstedt as to why women are under represented in the formal institutions of U.S. government and politics.  Although men and women may have some differing policy preferences based on gender, I disagree with the assertion that the under representation of women is a result of their inability to alter their policy preferences at the same speed as men.  I disagree with this because the speed of women’s decision making on policy does not seem to have a causal relationship with the number of women elected to political office.  Public knowledge of how fast women in political office make decisions is not nearly popular enough for that to be a dictating factor of whether people will vote for them.  This idea can be approached in a better way by introducing the idea that women’s party platforms are perhaps less clear as men’s, which is why they hardly get nominated.  Then the author could lead up to the theory that maybe this is why they are under represented; however, claiming that as the overall truth is misleading because articulating how to collect data on this theory would be very difficult.


Part 3: The Research Question

Does the pace of which women alter their policy preferences compared to men impact their ability to become nominated for the formal institutions of political office in United States government and politics?

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Assignment Sequence 2 A/B

Part 1: The Conversation

Lips, Hillary M. “Acknowledging Discrimination as a Key to the Gender Pay Gap.” Sex

     Roles 68.3-4 (2013):223-30. Springer Link. Web. 2 Nov. 2013.

Lips argues that while there have been great efforts made to analyze the many causes of the gender wage gap, the one cause that is often overlooked and downplayed is the role of discrimination against women in the workplace which can act as a key part of understanding and eliminating the gap.

Palamino, Frederic, and Eloic A. Peyrache. “Psychological Bias and Gender Wage Gap.”

     Journal ofEconomic Behavior and Organization 76.3 (2010): 563-73. Science Direct.

     Web. 3 Nov. 2013.

This scholarly article discusses the possibility that differences in confidence levels between men and women can explain why men earn more on average and why the differences in wages depend on the gender structure.

Nyhus, Ellen K., and Empar Pons. “Personality and the Gender Wage Gap.” Applied

      Economics 44.1(2012): 105-118. Business Source Complete. Web. 29 Sept. 2013.

This scholarly article examines the effect of personality on the gender wage gap stating that it is due to the generally less competitive behavior of women compared to the highly competitive behavior of men.

Gordon, Jenny. “Wages in Managed Markets: An Explanation of the Gender Wage Gap?”

     AustralianEconomic Review 45.2 (2012): 216-231. Business Source Complete. Web. 3

     Nov. 2013.

Gordon argues that the gender wage gap is the result of women being, on average, in lower paid jobs because they have fewer skills, less work experience, and lower productivity, as well as because women are limited in their choices of work based on preference and social barriers.

Semykina, Anastasia, and Susan J. Linz. “Gender Differences in Personality and

     Earnings.” Journal of Economic Psychology, Volume 28, Issue 3, June 2007, Pages

     387-410. Web. 29 Sept. 2013.

This scholarly article focuses very closely on a study that stated 8% of the gender wage gap could be attributed to personality and looks into the discussion that men are more likely to display internal positions of control and a need for challenge whereas women are more likely to display external positions of control and a need for affiliation instead.

Macpherson, David A., and Berry T. Hirsch. “Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do

     Women’s Jobs Pay Less?” Journal of Labor Economics 13.3 (1995): 426-71. JSTOR.

     Web. 3 Nov. 2013.

Macpherson and Hirsch focused on why wage levels are so much lower in predominantly female occupations attributing the reason mostly to occupational characteristics as well as worker skill and taste differences.


               Although they all approach the gender wage gap in a different way, all six of these scholarly articles have many overlapping aspects.  Perhaps the most notable of these similarities arise during the discussion of the effects of personality on the salary of men and women.  Palamino and Peyrache, Nyhus and Pans, and Semykina and Linz, all focused on the idea that the behaviors of men and women are very different thus what they offer and how they act in the work environment also differs. These three articles agree that there are several personality traits that have large impacts on pay.  They each believe confidence, competition, and confidence are the main causes of the gender wage gap. These sources tend to agree with each other because they have similar beliefs that personality and its many aspects have a large effect on how a person acts and behaves in the workplace and recognize that it can affect their pay as well. Macpherson and Hirsch and Gordon also agree on many aspects of the causes of the wage gap. They are especially in agreement when they discuss how women self-select their jobs and that they often, not purposefully, choose ones that are paid less on average.

               This leaves the scholarly article written by Lips.  This one tends to disagree with all of the other articles, because the author believes that discrimination is the main cause of the gender wage gap and doesn’t believe that the other factors are as important.  She believes that women are not given equal pay largely due to sexism.  Two more articles that often contradict each other are the ones written by Palimino and Peyrache and Gordon.  Gordon believes that there is a productivity difference between men and women.  Palamino and Peyrache argue that this is not the case, that productivity is the same between males and females, and that the pay gap cannot be attributed to differences in innate ability.

Finding the Gaps in the Scholarly Conversation

               While all six of these scholarly articles bring up different ideas as to why the gender wage gap exists, there is one aspect that seems to be missing.  None of the articles mention the breaks, gaps, and reduced work hours that many women often take to raise children as well as to care for the family.  These gaps can prevent women from making any advancements in their job and even end up becoming setbacks.  When a women is at home or away from work, she’s not able to make money and not able to progress at least for the times when she’s absent.  This may also be a cause for employers to not hire women or to reduce their pay.  This deserves to be looked into further because it is another important explanation as to why women make less on average than men and it is something that was not discussed at all in any of the scholarly articles.

The Research Question

How do fewer working hours and periodic gaps that many women are pressured by society into taking, contribute to the gender wage gap?  

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Assignment Sequence 2 A/B

Part 1: The Conversation

In the first academic journal, Cingel asserts that the increased use of text messaging in adolescents has weakened their comprehension of the English language, thus deteriorating their ability to correctly use capitalization, abbreviations, etc.  In the subsequent article, Dansieh agrees with Cingel that texting is has a negative correlation with grammar skills, using teacher surveys as his evidence. On the other hand, Durkin, Conti-Ramsden, and Walker, the three authors writing in the Journal of Computed Assisted Learning, argue that texting does not create comprehension of written word but comprehension does however make texting much easier. Margery Fee, the author of “Texting as a Life Phase Medium,” takes a different approach as she argues that texting is simply another step in the advancement of communication and that it is not a step back. Following Fee’s lead, Rich Lee from Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication states that texting has become a stage of life in that the amount of texts sent is at its highest when humans are in the adolescent stage.  Lastly, Simoes-Periant and his six fellow authors from Written Language and Literacy argue that based on studies conducted with texts sent from dyslexic teens, text language is a novel language that is separate from English.

Based on these six sources, I have gathered that there are basically two schools of thought concerning whether or not texting is harmful or beneficial to the comprehension of the English language. The first side of this argument alleges that the increased use of text messaging is harmful to society in that it destroys our phonological and linguistic understanding. Cingel and Dansieh are the two authors from the six sources in the annotated bibliography that are in accordance with this belief.  While he states that texting is detrimental to our society, Cingel adds that our society is also conforming to the new grammar laws that are a result of texting.  In agreement with Cingel, Dansieh takes it a step further by citing teacher surveys that show that the more a student texts, the lower their grammar skills are.

On the other side of the argument are the rest of the authors from my annotated bibliography.  These four sources argue that while texting is not necessarily good for the comprehension of English, it is definitely not harming it.  For example, Durkin’s research does not mention anything about ruining the language. It simply states that the ability to text stems from the ability to understand language, thus emphasizing the point that Fee makes in her article: texting is a tool that humans can use because of advancements in communication technology and our previously acquired skills of how to read and write.  Lastly, the article written by Rich Ling and the article written by Simoes-Periant take a slightly different approach to why texting is not damaging. They both view texting as a product of societal advancements.  This second school of thought on texting views it as a novel language and treats it separately from the English language whereas the first school studies it as a branch of English.





Part 2: Finding the Gap(s) in the Scholarly Conversation


While I believe that within each of their individual articles these authors are very thorough, I think that their assertions are missing a key element. All of the journals describe how texting is affecting this generation’s comprehension of English and how social networking and SMS messages are integral parts of our society, but none discuss how texting will impact the future. The argument that texting is destroying our current generation’s understanding of written word may be valid because it is a relatively new technology, and therefore might cause confusion. However, the novelty of this technology also might be a reason a researcher would claim that it couldn’t possibly affect how we understand English, because not enough time has passed.  But what happens when time does pass and the next generation is born into a world where texting already exists? Will they have a harder time differentiating between “text talk” and normal grammar as they grow up? This missing component needs more attention in research because in only a few years, the kids who were born around the same time texting was “born” will be perfecting their reading and writing. This is important because we will finally have evidence of the difference between the writing and reading skills of Americans born before texting and Americans born after texting.


Part 3: The Research Question


In the group of Americans that send over 50 texts a day, are English-speaking adolescents who were born after the invention of texting more likely to have grammar problems (specifically with spelling, capitalization, and abbreviations) than the English-speaking generation that was born before texting was invented?



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Assignment Sequence II A/B

Corey Harlow

November 1st, 2013

LAHS 1004- Lucht

 Assignment Sequence II A/B: Research Gaps and Research Questions


Rammohan suggests that far greater than maternal autonomy is a family’s economic status in determining how malnourished a family is likely to be. Srinivasan suggests that in order to solve a socio-economic issue such as those described by scholars like Rammohan, we must first bridge gaps in socio-economic status by constructing infrastructure. Scholars such as Khadka believe that no project of any sort can be deemed successful until villagers are consulted throughout the process and a mass media is established in developing nations. Garza further described what malnourishment means by going into depth about diarrheal diseases and what the childbearing process does to a mother’s diet. Mora goes into even more depth regarding the childbearing process by describing how important the prenatal period is to a child’s nourishment in a developing nation.  The research ends with Levinson who describes what exactly to look for and common mistakes that individuals make when evaluating nutritional programs.

All six of the articles have a single thing in common:  they all recognize that malnourishment is a serious problem in developing nations. Rammohan and Srinivasan both believe that that the real cause of malnourishment in these countries is the gap in the  socio-economic status of families. Both articles agree that health, education, and the wealth index contribute little to the problem. Instead, the heart of the problem lies in the economic status of families within these nations.  Garza and Mora also speak about similar subjects, both stressing the importance of the prenatal period in the childbearing process. Both agree that maternal activities and diets are certainly altered as a result of the childbearing process and this could easily affect the weight, height, and overall health of the newborn child. Finally Levinson, like Srinivasan, stresses the importance of knowing background information before evaluating malnourishment programs in other countries.

The problem with a few of the sources is that parts of each work against one another. Khadka stresses the importance of mass media within developing nations. Khadka believes that unless villagers are consulted throughout the process of instituting a nutritional program, success is not possible. Very few citizens have access to or know about health issues, and their ignorance is the reason malnourishment is so high. This view is much different than that of Rammohan and Srinivasan, who believe the heart of the problem lies in the socio-economic status of a nation. Garza also describes the reasons why diarrheal diseases develop in such areas and how nutritional factors, if promoted, could prevent the contraction of such diseases. This belief is again different than that of Khadka, who believes such programs are already set up within nations but a mass media simply does not exist to advertise across the nation. Levison also suggests the importance of knowing what to look for when analyzing nutritional data while Rammohan, Srinivasan, and Khadka present all sorts of data and give the scholar no information to use as a guide.


Rammohan briefly mentioned the effects of malnourishment on height. Each of the other five articles recognizes that with malnourishment comes a loss in weight, but none of the articles focus on the effects on height. I think the statistic that found fifty-seven percent of malnourished children were under height compared to only forty-eight who were underweight is something that certainly needs to be investigated further. Diarrheal disease due to malnourishment is certainly the leading cause for underweight children in developing nations. It would be interesting to figure out what exactly causes malnourished children to be under-height, however, and whether or not it is a result of genetics or physical forces after birth. There is much more to malnourishment than simply living an unhealthy lifestyle and being extremely underweight. Effects such as being under height are often left out because they are not seen as contributing to health issues though it is possible they actually do. Rammohan included the statistic whether he recognized its importance to the future of research or not. It is certainly an issue all of the other articles fail to even mention.


Using the data presented by Rammohan, are pre-school aged (3-5) children in the developing nation of Nepal at least five percent more likely to be under-height than under-weight as a result of poor nutrition?


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Assignment Sequence 2 A/B

Part I

Engel’s Taking Hunger Seriously” develops a theory for why first world countries should help third world countries in the fight against hunger.  Stevenson’s article attempts to explain why the third world countries are underdeveloped, and advocates an isolationist political stance for these countries.  Akama, Lant, and Burnett put forth a theory on how to improve long-term development in third world countries, specifically Kenya. Shiva argues that hunger is very much a feminist problem, because of the increase in women’s suffering in poverty stricken areas; she also interesting theorizes that much of the problem with hunger is because its primary use has become money-making rather than as a food source.  In “A Case for a Duty to Feed the Hungry: GM Plants and the Third World,” Carter states that it is the moral duty of first world countries to use genetically modified organisms in order to fight third world malnutrition. Toft argues that it is necessary to use GMOs, but only in moderation, to improve crop yields and reduce hunger.


For the most part, the articles agree on one thing; hunger and poverty in third world countries is a large problem and needs to be fixed. All except for Engel, who does not participate in this specific argument, and Carter write that a long-term fix is needed in order to cure the world of this ailment. Likewise, most except for Stevenson, and perhaps Akama, feel that there is a need for first world countries to make some sacrifice in order to help the impoverished countries overcome this predicament.

The arguments from these articles mostly revolve around whether or not hunger and malnutrition in impoverished countries needs a long-term approach or a short-term approach.  The advocates of the GMO use generally aim for the shortest route possible to alleviating the hunger problem, whereas the advocates of political and social development are shooting for a longer term solution. In fact, Carter even states that the use of GMOs is justified whether or not their use is safe or entirely effective. This appears to be a differing viewpoint to those of Toft, whose more long-term view is a more moderate viewpoint, and Shiva, who is arguing that the problem is very much a cultural one based off of a commodity-like view of food. To change a cultural viewpoint would be a much longer term project than that of Carter.

Another underlying argument that doesn’t quite as readily spring to the top is that of whether or not it is the job of the developed or underdeveloped countries to fight the hunger problem. Carter and Toft appear to be taking the stance that if it is in our power to help, then we are obligated to help. Engel’s theory is directly arguing for this approach to helping impoverished countries.  However, Stevenson contrasts this viewpoint by arguing for an isolationist policy in third world countries in order to fully develop as a sustainable country. Akama’s article appears to focus on long-term development of the country itself to become more sustaining and stable, without as much aid from other countries, thus more in support of Stevenson’s argument.


Part II

However, there is a large gap in this conversation. Stevenson feels that the reason third world countries need to adopt a policy of isolationism is that developed countries have policies that take advantage of weaker countries economically. Stevenson points to examples of countries, such as China, that adopted isolationist policies and greatly improved their economic world standing. However, Stevenson does not address whether or not developed countries, or perhaps their inhabitants, should give aid to these countries. It seems a reasonable argument could be made that the countries need to learn how and develop ways to function and grow without outside aid, so as to be independent nations non-reliant of others.  The other authors also appeared to look at how outside countries should give aid, why they were obligated to, or how the impoverished countries needed to develop, but it appeared that no one gave a strong argument looking at both sides to decide whether or not it was beneficial for long-term development of third world countries for outside countries to give aid, or whether or not an isolationist policy is beneficial if outside countries are giving aid.


Part III

For long term development of third world countries into a state of sustainably high quality of life, what are the advantages and disadvantages of outside aid from more fully developed countries.

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Assignment Seq 2 Part A/B

AS2: A/B
Part 1:
Jane Smith’s article considers that Islamic tradition may actually be more desirable to women in Middle Easter cultures than the western “individualism”. Predelli’s article proposes that different branches and sects of Islam do not necessarily interpret and follow the Quran the same way as the traditional, orthodox area of the Near East, but may interpret things in a feminist way. Iman Hishim’s article offers up the idea that Muslims don’t consider Islam to be oppressive toward women because the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad support womens’ rights to some extent. Mousa’s article exemplifies the attitudes toward women in Islamic society by portraying the view of women in Islamic literature. Abou-Bakr’s article explains the role women had in hadith scholarship and argues that women should have more of a sense of recognition in these educational procedures because of their contributions. Mir-Hosseini’s article is based on the opinion of a Muslim woman who believes there is a happy medium between sharia and feminism, clearly advocating reform.
The scholarly conversation about gender roles in Islamic society goes back and forth between the idea that there should be reform and the notion that tradition should reign. Smith, Predelli, and Hashim all have strong opinions about the benefits of a true Islamic culture, including the current gender roles most likely because they are coming from an “Islamist” point of view. These three articles were using culture as an explanation of how things are in Islamic society. The articles even agree on the point that women aren’t even necessarily “oppressed” as is the western view. The women are “liberated” by their choice to veil, as almost a sense of control and modesty. These three articles seem to all line up with the idea that one culture isn’t wrong just because it’s different from western society.
The three articles mentioned previously strongly butt heads with the other three articles on most issues. The authors of the first three articles would be likely to take the position that women are recognized for their roles in society but shouldn’t be recognized publicly. Abou-Bakr tells us that women should definitely begin to be recognized on a public level, specifically for their contribution in hadith scholarship, which is a huge deal in Islamic society. The article concerning Arabic literature can be siding with several different arguments because different literature recognizes women in different ways depending on the views of that particular author. Some literature chooses to ignore women as a whole while some literature scorns women and almost makes fun of them. The gender jihad in Islam is an extremely controversial issue and is hotly disputed. There will be scholarly debate on this issue for years and years to come.
Part 2:
The scholarly conversation concerning the way that women are portrayed in Arabic Literature is much too short. There isn’t a very vast selection of material on the analysis of gender roles in Arabic Literature. I think that the reason that the conversation is too short is because the way that gender is portrayed in the leisurely reading in Arabic culture. I think that books that are read for pleasure will sometimes show the most about our culture because a specific argument isn’t being pursued. Something that is purely for entertainment will usually have quite a bit of truth in it. Specifically, “1001 Nights” which is a compilation of stories written across the centuries, would be a fascinating way to learn more about Islamic culture. These stories portray the continuity and change of gender roles, as well as other social concepts, in Middle Eastern society. Learning about the treatment of women would be simple with the stories of kings and their concubines, who often gained enormous power through their sexuality and charms. It would be interesting to see when it was that women were transitioning from sexual objects to being able to become feminist forces in public life.
How are gender roles in “1,001 Nights” portrayed and are they an accurate representation of how life was actually like in Islamic Society?


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Assignment Sequence 2 A-B

Part 1: The Conversation


Cash and Henry look at the dissatisfaction of adult women with their image and weight and explains that there was a difference in how African American women saw themselves to how Anglo or Hispanic women saw themselves, but no correlation between the ages of adult women.  Cash, Morrow, Hrabosky, and Perry found that women had an increased dissatisfaction with their body image over a 19-year period, while men had no significant changes.  Pope and Olivardia look at the ideal body image for adolescent boys and how the physical makeup of action toys has exceeded the proportion of even the largest of bodybuilders and may contribute to body image disorders in both sexes.


These are the new sources I found that relate to my specified research question.


Dohnt, Hayley K., and Marika Tiggemann. “Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 35.2 (2006): 135-45. SpringerLink. Web. 12 Oct. 2013.


Dohnt and Tiggemann aim to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5–8 years and highlights that girls this age are already living in an appearance culture in which both peers and the media influence body image and dieting awareness.


Rozin, Paul, and April Fallon. “Body Image, Attitudes to Weight, and Misperceptions of Figure Preferences of the opposite Sex: A Comparison of Men and Women in Two Generations.”Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97.3 (1988): 342-45. American Psychological Association. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.


Rozin and Fallon explain that the major factor in concern about weight is sex rather than generation or discrepancy between perception of current and ideal body shape in that women more often view themselves as overweight than men do.


Drewnowski, A., and D. K. Yee. “Men and Body Image: Are Males Satisfied with Their Body Weight?” Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine 49.6 (1987): 626-34. Psychosomatic Medicine. Web. 12 Oct. 2013.


Drewnowski and Yee reveal in a study that both men and women who wished to lose weight expressed dissatisfaction with body shape although men used exercise for weight control while women resorted to stricter calorie consumption.



The five articles that compare the ideal body image from men to women all share the argument that women tend to have a negative view on their image.  In the two articles that refer to the body image of men and women over time, both agree that women showed more of dissatisfaction with their bodies while men showed no significant change in their ideas.  All of the articles agree that body image is affected by self-image and misconstrued ideas of the “perfect” body type.  Almost all of the articles refer to the shaping of body image on people and the causes for these negative images; it can be seen that the media has an extreme effect on how individuals see themselves and how they look at other people around them.  However, the last article looks at the effect of these body image distortions and the differences in men and women.

I believe that most of my sources actually agree because it is a highly shared thought that body image has been warped over time based on what media and social media puts out there.  There are some disagreements whether men have a more positive look on their image or whether it’s more of a neutral look.  I believe that is a case for disagreement because it’s a qualifying aspect, which is harder to measure in general.  What one study may consider a neutral perspective; another study may consider it a positive one.  In general, I believe sources disagree with each other because there can be many different views on a particular topic without any of them being necessarily wrong.  Also, most research questions are something of debate, so there are always going to be differing opinions from different sources.


Part Two: Finding the Gap in the Scholarly Conversation


Something I did not run into was how the ideal body image changed over time.  Most of these studies come from the mid 80’s or early 90’s, so I think it’s necessary for another round of more recent studies to compare the effect of body image on women and men of all ages.  Also, I thought there was some information missing on how social network affects the minds of adolescents now.  I see a lot of information about how social network affects how people view themselves, but not necessarily how they view their body image in society.  I strongly disagree with the last article’s argument about the effect of body image on men and women. I disagree with that because nowadays, it seems like more women are focusing on exercising than strict dieting.  I believe the article should take another study this year and compare it to 1987 to see how the ways have changed.  Overall, I agree that women have a more distorted image of their body than men and I also agree with the argument that media has a large role in influencing that.


Part Three: The Research Question


How does body image in general shape the different stereotypes those have of themselves and others around them?


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Assignment Sequence II A/B

Part 1: The Conversation

The main argument of “Religion, Social Capital, and Health ” is does religion have any connection with health because the factors are unexplained.

The main argument of “Nutrition and Culture in Professional  football”consists of an intake on diet solutions for soccer players.

“Nutrition and Team Sports” argument is focused on predicting the exact game demands and performance in team sports dependent upon nutritional factors.

“Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins” argument is directed towards the research topic of carbohydrates and proteins around sports nutrition.

“Nutrition and Sports Performance” argument deals with various aspects of the physical activity of athletic exercise that is viewed as stresses that hence nutrition in an athlete.

For “Sports Nutrition:Applying the Science” the argument consists of nutrition, energy, and medical nutrition therapy.



Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins and Nutrition and Sports Performance are agreeable upon each other. The articles overall perspective revolves around nutrition and the physical activity around sports. The reasons they are agreeable upon each other is because they are both based off the same perspective of how nutrition plays a major role in physical activity. They both have nutritious intakes on how well they perform in sports based off of nutrition.

Nutrition in Team Sports with Nutrition and Culture in Professional football disagree because they both come from two different opinionated views on how well they feel about diets and intakes upon nutritional factors.  For Culture in Professional football they think athletes will excel better performance wise with an essential diet, but Nutrition in Team Sports thinks you just need to continue to eat more healthy with nutritional demands instead of dieting.

Sports Nutrition: Applying the Science and Religion, Social Capital, and Health are easily disagreeable with each other due to the fact that the first scholarly article is more focused on religion and its connection with health while the second scholarly article is more focused challenged athletes and how well they perform athletically.


Part 2: Finding the Gap(s) in the Scholarly Conversation

I think there is a lot missing in these scholarly articles, but I’ll narrow it down to an agreement between the two scholarly articles: Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins and Nutrition and Sports Performance. I think that questions pertained to how physical activity of athletic exercise is viewed as stresses that hence nutrition in an athlete. What I think is missing is an explanation of how they view athletic exercise as a stress. How is it a stress, if you’re doing physical activity and keeping your body in shape? It needs further attention focused on to it to explain the reasons to why it is believed to be a stress that stops the nutrition in athletes. For Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins and Nutrition, I’m curious to know how is carbohydrates and proteins around sports nutrition come in terms with physical activity? It needs further attention because it doesn’t give me enough information to answer the question that I’m curious to knowing the answer too.


Part 3: The Research Question

Why does nutritional intake on diet solutions have such a big impact on performance doing different activity patterns and, what causes it to be such a main concern for athletes only and not everybody else?


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Sequence II

Part 1

The article “On Technology And Humanity: A Bibliographic Essay,” Doneson explains that the impact technology is having on the world is enormous and that peoples’ lives, the government, and the environment will all change as a result. “Culture, Democracy and Identity in the Globalization Context: Information and Communication Technology” is an article that conveys the negative impact technology has had on changes in culture and society. In the article “Political Culture and Information Technology in the 2001 Singapore General Election,” Kluver uses the election in Singapore to show how technology is having a negative effect on helping people retain original cultural practices. “Technology And The Rest Of Culture: Keynote” is about how companies and people now depend on the Internet for profit, information, and communication. It explains that though technology may be taking over part of the business world, it could never take over all of it because proximity and human contact is something that could never be taken out of businesses. “Running the Blockade: Information Technology, Terrorism, and the Transformation of Islamic Mass Culture” is an article focusing on how communication technology has made it easier for terrorists to organize and network. The article “Boat-Rocking in the High-Technology Culture” takes a different look at the connection between technology and communication; it studies the type of people who take jobs in the technology industry the methods they use to communicate to one another.


The similarities that the six articles share are that they all share the same conclusion that advancements in technology have proven to play a role in the formation of culture by affecting the way people work, communicate, and view politics because technology provides easier access to information. They all agree that technology is impacting people around the world, but not all in the same way. For those in Singapore it means that technology is a way for them to understand the outside world enough to realize that they want change in their original cultural practices and for Terrorists its means faster and easier ways to form and organize. Though the articles agree on the influence of technology their disagreements are equally as important.


Penzias, who wrote “Technology And The Rest Of Culture: Keynote,” argues that technology is an asset to businesses and that it could never replace important parts of business such as the need for talking face-to-face. This opinion differs from the other journal articles such as Doneson’s, because Doneson’s article supports the idea that technology could be responsible for a lot of damage to society and really change the way people communicate. Fuenmayor’s “Culture, Democracy and Identity in the Globalization Context: Information and Communication Technology” disagrees with the approach that technology is detrimental to the development of culture, instead seeing it as encouraging culture by providing the public with more information. Kluver believes the opposite of Fuenmayor, seeing technology as erasing past cultural traditions and replacing them with less meaningful practices. The articles have many differences, but without them their would be no need for research.



Part 2

The gap in the research that has been done thus far on technology and culture is finding a solution to the problem. Many articles claim there are problems that will arise out of the use of technology, but that is all they ever say. Few articles go into detail on what can be changed in order to make technology more of an asset and less of a burden to society. So many people talk about the problems with technology, but yet no one has come up with a valid solution. The gap that is missing in the argument needs to be addressed because if we are to change the negative aspects of technology we have to figure out the different ways it can be accomplished first. Solutions to making technology have a positive influence on culture are still missing. The gap is necessary to fix in order to keep the potential problems with technology from growing.


Part 3

What is a solution to how technology is causing negative changes in cultures around the world?

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