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SEM Sample Preparation

SEM Sample Preparation

         Since the SEM uses a beam of electrons to image a sample, few preparations are required beforehand. The surface of the sample should be electrically conductive to be imaged. Otherwise, electrons accumulate on the surface and cause scanning faults. If the sample is not conductive, it is needed to be coated with a thin […]

Electrochemical Microsystems

Electrochemical Microsystems

        Electrochemistry means all processes of ions or molecules at charged interfaces, that is, faradaic as well as electroless processes. They take place usually at solid/liquid interfaces, but liquid/liquid interfaces may be included, too. Micro limits the systems and processes to the range bellow 1 mm in all three dimensions x, y, z. Micro-electrochemistry is […]

Concepts of Micro-electrodeposition

Concepts of Micro-electrodeposition

            A large portion of materials around us are polar. The constituents of these materials, molecules or atoms, have positive or negative charge. Atoms in a salt structure have both positive or negative charges and the electrostatic force between opposite charges, ionic force, sticks atoms together in the solid state. A charged species is called ion. […]