Nineteenth century Americans lived within a society thoroughly permeated with religious ideology and moral language. In the South, honor and religious feeling combined to defend a southern social order characterized by the racial hierarchy imposed by slavery. In the North, some groups used Christianity as a means of disparaging slavery and calling for abolition, while others left such dilemmas to the providence of God and called for peace instead. Both Northerners and Southerners, however, became accustomed in the first half of the nineteenth century to inserting religious discourse into the public sphere normally reserved for politics. Using sermons, newspapers, letters, and diaries, I wish to explore how Northerners and Southerners understood their distinctive duties as Christians in relation to debates over slavery and secession. Focusing specifically on the cities of Charleston and Philadelphia, I will attempt to argue that the way people understood ‘Christian Duty’ was a vital part of how they interpreted the Secession Crisis and the decision to go to war. Such a study will hopefully help to illuminate the differences between North and South, as well as the motivations of politicians, soldiers, and civilians for going to war.