Образование масс

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With the revolution in February, the socialist youth movement emerged out of young workers throughout Russia. They pushed for more education opportunities and education for everyone. This youth movement join with the Bolsheviks Party and they helped to create policies that would educate the youth of Russia.

At the end of 1917, there was a state commission on education. This brought about all different types of schools for the youth and a few for adults. These schools had great influence on the people on this time. With Bolsheviks giving more attention to the youth of Russia, they were focusing on the future opposed to trying to fix the issues of the present.

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There was other focuses on education in the beginning on the Bolsheviks reign. Labor education and agriculture education were important for the continual growth of the agriculture systems so that there would be a reduced chance of famine and hunger with the growing population. This focus continued as the Soviet Union was formed and even after Lenin died.

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Education continued to be a focus into the Cold War time but the government started to have more of a stress on science and technology because of the arms race with the United States. Higher education became easier to obtain with the desire to have a bigger and better military. An article from Nature says, that “professional knowledge does not correspond to the increased requirements for science and industry.”

With the education system that was created for the future of Russia, children became the “privileged class” of the Soviet Union. Education in the Soviet Union was free and mothers were able to stay home with their children until they were 18 months old to take care of them and start their education. Formal Education started when children were 7 years old and ended at 18 years old. During their education, children were integrated into the Communist Party and became a member Komsomol when they were 14 years old. The Soviet Union had all of the children taught the exact same way with the same information.

The education system in Russia was progressive in many ways. Before the revolution of 1917, the masses were uneducated and ignorant of how the government really affected them. After the Bolsheviks took power and implemented an education system that incorporated everyone, the ignorance decreased. There were more people who were able to do the basic of reading and writing and were able to be an active member of society. With the variety of schools that were created, society become more varied and people were able to move classes, become a specialist, and openly share new ideas with the community.

Work Cited

http://soviethistory.macalester.edu/index.php?page=subject&SubjectID=1917youth&Year=1917&navi=byYear

James Bunyan and H.H. Fisher, ed., Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1918; Documents and Materials (Stanford: Stanford University Press; H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1934), pp. 201-202.

James Bunyan, ed., Intervention, Civil War, and Communism in Russia, April-December 1918 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1936), pp. 534-535.

Soviet Education Today
Richard E. Werstler and Wilma P. Werstler
The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 62, No. 10 (Jun., 1981), pp. 710-712
Published by: Phi Delta Kappa International
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20386108

State Children: Soviet Russia’s Besprizornye and the New Socialist Generation
Alan Ball
Russian Review, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 1993), pp. 228-247
Published by: Wiley on behalf of The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review
Article DOI: 10.2307/131345
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/131345

The Socialist Youth Movement in Revolutionary Petrograd
Isabel A. Tirado
Russian Review, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Apr., 1987), pp. 135-155
Published by: Wiley on behalf of The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review
Article DOI: 10.2307/130623
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/130623

Soviet Correspondent. “Soviet Education Policy.” Nature 239 (1972): 62. Print.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v239/n5367/pdf/239062b0.pdf

Photos:

http://soviethistory.macalester.edu/index.php?page=subject&show=images&SubjectID=1917youth&Year=1917&navi=byYear

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6 thoughts on “Образование масс

  1. I liked your comment about children being a privileged class. The family law of 1918 states that they did have rights to their own property, and a right to be financially taken care of by their parents. However, they were not free to do whatever they wanted. Their parents still determined what kind of education they would get, what their religion would be, where they would live, and basically every other aspect of their life. It is interesting that they would still be considered privileged when they couldn’t decide that much on their own. (on the other hand, would anyone really let a two-year-old make those kinds of decisions?)

  2. Education is pretty much the foundation of most societies. Even today in developing countries, education is among the first steps to improve. Higher education leads to decrease in things like child mortality and poverty and increases things like income and life expectancy. Pushes like this post talks about is why russia is where it is today because lets face it, they were a little behind going into the 20th century.

  3. It’s awesome how many more opportunities children were given to receive an education and how it made them more involved in society as they got older. What’s interesting is the intentions of Russia in providing education, for example when they focused more on science and technology after the Cold War to try and catch up in the arms race. You also mentioned how they were all taught the exact same thing in the exact same way. The government controlled just what they children were being taught, with their government/military intentions a big influence. While I understand why Russia did this, it also makes it seem like they didn’t really care about educating their people as much as the benefits an educated populace would create for the state.

    • It does seem like the government just wanted to use the educated populace to help forward Russia. But my impression was that, in the beginning at least, that they really just wanted to educate the entire country and help to make Russia a better place. I don’t think that using the educated as a resource was thought of until after the Communist Party was formed.

  4. I really liked this post. This was a subject I really knew very little about. I was interested to learn about the changes the Bolshevik government made to the state provided education to the masses which was really unavailable to anyone other than the wealthier members of society.

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