Monthly Archives: September 2013

Kornilov Affair

Kornilov was known as a hero after his escape from the Hungarian prisoner of war camp and after his escape he returned to Russia in 1916. He believed that the Petrograd Soviet was responsible for the lack of military discipline. Lavr Kornilov was an Imperial Russia general who was assigned command of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) by the new Provisional Government. His job was the restoration of order and supporter among the troops stationed there this brought him unpopularity in the region. “This attempted putsch was an abysmal failure mainly because of the Soviet’s effective mobilization of workers and soldiers in defense of the revolution. The key defenders were armed workers organized into Red Guards, elements of the Petrograd Garrison, and railroad workers who halted the trains carrying Kornilov’s troops while they were en route to the capital.” (Siegelbaum)

In 1917, the Prime Minister Alexander Kerenski designated Kornilov to become the Commander in Chief of the army. Quickly after Kerenski appointed Kornilov as the Commander and Chief he regretted it because he believed that Kornilov wanted a military dictatorship. Both of these men have mutual lack of trust of each other which causes major problems between them. At the end of August is when Kornilov marched troops into Petetrograd commanding that the government to resign and give control to the Commander in Chief.  

“By August 31, Krymov was dead, having committed suicide, and Kornilov and several associates were under arrest. The main victor in the Kornilov Affair was the radical left, and in particular the Bolsheviks who had long warned of the danger of a counter-revolutionary thrust. Kerenskii’s authority and that of the Provisional Government were severely compromised, and the way now appeared open towards realizing Lenin’s injunction for the soviets to assume ‘all power’.” (Siegelbaum)

There are many different historian opinions about the Kornilov affair. Many believe that the Kornilov affair involved far less scheming and merely arose from a series of misunderstandings. Some struggle that Kornilov’s rebellion attempt was genuine, while others suspect that Kerensky led Kornilov into a trap.

 General Lavr Kornilov 1917

Picture from: http://www.soviethistory.org/index.php?page=subject&show=images&SubjectID=1917kornilov&Year=1917&navi=byYear

Quotes from: Seventeen Moments in Soviet History: http://www.soviethistory.org/index.php?page=subject&SubjectID=1917kornilov&Year=1917

Bloody Sunday 1904

When Nicholas II took over after his the death of his father Alexander III in 1894 would have inherited at nation that was going to revolt if it was not for Lenin. By the 1900s the whole entire country of Russia was escalating out of control.  From the day that Nicholas took leadership of Russia there problems. Even on the day of his coronation problems arose.

Sunday’s are thought to be a peaceful day that supposed to focus on God. Unfortunately, this was not the case on the 22nd day of January 1905. A group of striking workers gather any many different areas within the city of Petersburg lead by Russian Orthodox priest Georgii  Gapon. These Russian factory workers were trying to gain respect in the workplace higher wages and shorter hours. This assembly of workers was going to the residence of the Tsar Nicholas II, The Winter Palace. “They organized it almost as if it were a religious ceremonial. All were unarmed, even pocket knives being left at home, and women and children took their part in the great event which was to bring them into the presence of the head of the nation. After singing hymns the mass of unarmed people moved forward (New York Times, Oct 13, 1905).” When the large crowd reached the palace the guards released warning fire to dissolve the crowds which ended up killing a large amount of people. The Tsar was not actually at this palace and never gave the order to fire on this group of workers but since he is the leader of the country he got the blamed for the deaths and injured.

According to the New York Times article troops are allowed to use their weapons only in “extreme necessity” only after they have given fair warning by means of a drum, horn or a trumpet (New York Times, Oct 13, 1905). “In these respects, as well as in others, the civil and military authorities are found by the committee to have failed in their duty and an impressive indictment is formulated in detail against the guardians of the law for the acts by which they were themselves guilty of its violation (New York Times, Oct 13, 1905).”

This event was only the beginning!

Picture from: http://www.russianartgallery.com/I–Vladimirov/Bloody-Sunday/

Other Information from: Russia A History, By. Gregory L Freeze, Third Edition.

Quotes from : From The, London Times. “BLAME FOR “BLOODY SUNDAY.”.” New York Times (1857-1922), Oct 13, 1905. http://ezproxy.lib.vt.edu:8080/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/96534550?accountid=14826.