After his successful repression of uprisings during the April Crisis, General Lavr Kornilov was appointed Supreme Commander of the Russian armed forces by Prime Minister Alexander Kerensky. Kerensky tasked Kornilov with restoring the fighting capability of the Russian army, an undertaking the Kornilov had no intention of fulfilling as he had no confidence in the 2nd Coalition’s ability to compete in World War I or calm the Russian home front. Kornilov saw the Provisional Government as a puppet of the Soviets and believed that it was his duty to end the practice of dual power.
On August 27, 1917 the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief led a military coup against the Russian Provisional Government in Petrograd. Kornilov ordered General Krymov to lead the “Savage Division” and the Third Cavalry Corps in an assault on Petrograd. Within 4 days General Krymov had committed suicide and the Soviet Red Guards quickly put down the uprising and arrested Kornilov and the rest of his conspirators.
While Kerensky implicitly approved of Kornilov’s actions, he was not hesitant to deny any connection between himself and the general. Ultimately, Kerensky’s plotting would be revealed to the public and virtually all support of his government would dwindle. This failed coup provided fuel for the political left to discredit Kerensky’s authority. The Kornilov Affair would serve as a catalyst for the upcoming Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917 (during which Kornilov would ironically escape his imprisonment and later fight the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War). As a result of this “counter-revolutionary thrust”, the Soviet cause gained mass support and it became clear that the time for the Bolsheviks to assume power was fast approaching.
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Freeze, Gregory L. Russia: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. 287-288. Print.